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KUMPULAN KARYATULIS ILMIAH Prof. Supar 1979 – 2013

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Supar (Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science). Vaksin Etec Multivalen. Jakarta. IAARD Press. 2013. p.210.2013

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Ariyanti, Tati; Supar(Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner). Aplikasi vaksin enterotoksigenik Escherichia coli polivalen pada induk sapi perah untuk meningkatkan daya proteksi kolostrum dalam pengendalian neonatal kolibasilosis. Prosiding ' Prospek Industri Sapi Perah Menuju Perdagangan Bebas 2020'. Jakarta. 21 April 2008. p.239-246. Bogor. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. (2008).

 

Abstrak

Enterotoksigenik Escherichia coli(ETEC), menyebabkan diare dan kematian anaksapi perah serta menghambat perkembangan populasi sapi perah. Tujuan kajian penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui efektifitas vaksin ETEC polivalen isolat lokal untuk pengendalian diare neonatal pada anak sapi perah. Vaksin dibuat dari ETEC K99 serogrup O9dan O101, ETEC F41 serogrup O101, ETEC K99F41 serogrup O101.Antigen vaksin dibuat dalam bentuk inaktif dan diemulsikan dalam larutan gel alumunium hidroksida pada konsentrasi akhir 1,5% dan konsentrasi sel dibuat setara dengan kekeruhan tabung standar McFarland no 10. Prasurvei dilakukan di kabupaten Bandung, Sukabumi dan Bogor untuk menentukan peternak responden, mengetahui prevalensi diare pada anak sapi, koleksi sampel ulas rektal untuk isolasi dan sampel kolostrum 5-10 ml post partus untuk pemeriksaan respon antibodi. Dua kali vaksinasi dengan dosis vaksin 5 ml diinjeksikan pada sapi umur kebuntingan 6 minggu dan 2 minggu sebelum perkiraan partus. Anak sapi lahir diberi kolostrum induknya masing-masing. Sampel kolostrum dan susu diperiksa secara ELISA terhadap antigen pili K99 dan atau F41. Prevalensi diare padapengamatan prasurvei sebesar 15,5% (932/207). ETEC K99 dan ETEC F41 dapat diisolasi. Respon anti–K99 dan atau anti-F41 IgG antibodi sangat tinggi pada hari pertama post partus dan terus menurun pada beberapa hari berikutnya. Rata-rata bobot badan anak sapi lahir 240dari kelompok induk divaksinasi lebih cepat dan lebih tinggi dibanding anak sapi lahir dari induk yang tidak divaksinasi. Disimpulkan bahwa aplikasi vaksin ETECpolivalen isolat lokal menstimulir respon antibodi protektif terhadap pili K99 dan F41, menurunkan kasus infeksi ETEC K99 F41 dan diare di lapang.      2008

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Supar; Ariyanti, Tati(Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner). Kajian pengendalian mastitis subklinis pada sapi perah. Prosiding ' Prospek Industri Sapi Perah Menuju Perdagangan Bebas 2020'. Jakarta. 21 April 2008. p.360-366. Bogor. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan. (2008).

Abstrak

Mastitis merupakan radang kelenjar  mamae pada sapi perah yang dapat menyebabkan kerugian ekonomi berupa penurunan kualitas dan produksi susu. Mastitis pada sapi perah dibedakan menjadi 2 macam, yaitu: mastitis klinis (MK) dan mastitis subklinis (MSK). Tujuan kajian ini ialah untuk pengendalian MSK secara dry cow therapy(DCT). Kegiatan pengkajian ini meliputi aktifitas lapangan dan laboratorium pada tahun 1994-1995. Kajian lapangan terdiri dari prasurvei untuk menentukan lokasi dan peternak responden (di Kabupaten, Bandung, Bogor dan Sukabumi) dan pengambilan sampel susu. Kegiatan laboratorik meliputi konfirmasi penyebab penyakit secara isolasi dan secara Aulendorfer Mastitis Probe (AMP). Dari isolasi diketahui penyebab mastitis ialah Streptococcus agalactia, Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis mendominasi (91,5%) sedangkan Streptococcus dysagalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Coliform dan lain-lain minoritas (8,5%). Pemeriksaan secara AMP sebanyak 646 dari 1216 (53,1%) sampel menunjukkan susu kuartir menderita MSK dan pada laktasi berikutnya de ngan sampel 533 kuatir sebanyak 152 (47,3%) menderita MSK. Pengaruh perlakuan DCT terhadap produksi susu dari 33 ekor sapi penderita MSK produksi susunya rata-rata sebanyak 1615 liter/ekor/90 hari. Pada 60 ekor penderita MSK tidak dilakukan DCT rata-rata menghasilkan susu sebanyak 1320 liter/ekor/90 hari. Pada 10 ekor sapi sehat yang dilakukan DCT produksi susunya sebanyak 1617 liter/ekor/90 hari dan 26 ekor sapi sehat tidak dilakukan DCT produk susunya sebanyak 1550 liter/ekor/90 hari. Dari pengkajian ini disimpulkan bahwa, pengendalian MSK secara dry cow therapy, disertai dengan manajemen pemerahan yang baik dapat menekan kejadian MSK dan menaikan produksi susu.                 2008

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Susanti; Kusmiyati; Supar(Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner). Seroprevalensi dinamik leptospirosis pada daerah pengembangan sapi perah. Prosiding ' Prospek Industri Sapi Perah Menuju Perdagangan Bebas 2020'. Jakarta. 21 April 2008. p.372-377. Bogor. Pusat penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan. (2008).

 

Abstrak

Leptospirosis merupakan penyakit infeksius yang disebabkan oleh beberapa serovar bakteri Leptospira interrogans. Penyakit tersebut tersebar luas di berbagai wilayah di dunia termasuk di Indonesia dan bersifat zoonosis. Gejala leptospirosis pada sapi dapat bervariasi mulai dari subklinis, ringan hingga infeksi akut dan dapat menyebabkan kematian. Pada induk sapi yang bunting, gejala abortus, pedet lahir  lemah dan mati. Infeksi leptospirosis pada sapi perah yang sedang laktasi dapat menyebabkan demam disertai dengan penurunan produksi susu yang berlangsung selama 2-10 hari, perubahan fisik susu seperti mastitis dan tiba-tiba kehilangan semua produksi susu. Hewan penderita leptospirosis dapat mensekresikan bakteri Leptospira sp melalui urine dan dapat mencemari lingkungan peternakan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seroprevalensi leptospirosis pada sapi dengan memeriksa sampel sera yang diterima di laboratorium Bakteriologi Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner (BBALITVET). Pemeriksaan penyakit leptospirosis pada sapi dilakukan secara serologik dengan microscopic agglutination test(MAT). Pemeriksaansecara serologik sampel serum sapi perah dan sapi potong dari berbagai tempat di daerah Bandung, Bogor, Jakarta, Semarang, Baturaden, Malang, Grati, Yogyakarta dan Nusa Tenggara Barat yang dilakukan di laboratorium Bakteriologi BBALITVET dari tahun 2003 – 2007 menunjukkan 18,38% positif leptospirosis. Dari jumlah sampel positif tersebut, sebanyak 60,54% merupakan reaktor positif serovar hardjo, tarassovi (43,40%), icterohaemorrhagiae (34,41%), pomona (33,82%), javanica (29,56%), ballum (27,73%), canicola (23,45%), rachmati (1,89%) australis (1,51%), bataviae (0,60%) dan pyrogenes (0,48%). Dari kajian tersebut disimpulkan bahwa sapi rentan terhadap Leptospira interrogans, yang dominan serovar hardjo. Seroprevalensi leptospirosis musim kemarau (16,38%) lebih rendah dari musim penghujan (19,20%), menunjukkan peningkatan infeksi pada musim penghujan.

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Ariyanti, Tati; Supar( Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Kholera unggas dan prospek pengendaliannya dengan vaksin Pasteurella multocida isolat lokal. WARTAZOA. (2008). Vol.18(1) p.18-24.

 

Abstrak

Pasteurellosis or fowl cholera disease which associated with Pasteurella multocida group A and D infections occurred sporadically in many parts of the world, including in Indonesia. The pathogenic  ctivity of P. multocida in chickens were based on lipopolysacharide (LPS) antigens associated with group A and D capsules, and the resistance factor of complement mediated bacteriolysis in animals. In order to reduce common bacterial infections, antibiotics were routinely used as feed additive or by drinking water, but fowl cholera cases still occur. Fowl cholera control by vaccinations have been used more than a hundred years ago by means of inactive vaccine, but imported inactive vaccine was reported not effective due to lack of cross protection against heterologous serotype. At present, many local P. multocida isolates from chicken and ducks from many areas in Indonesia were characterised for their antigenicity, immunogenicity and prepared as monovalent or bivalent vaccine. Only the monovalent vaccine prepared from BCC 2331 or DY2 demonstrated the presence of immunoprotection against homologous and heterologous challenged with live bacteria. The prototype bivalent vaccine consisting of BCC 2331 + DY2 demonstrated high degree of cross protection against challenged individual with or mixed of BCC 2331 + DY2 at average of 60 – 75% and 75 – 100%, respectively. Monovalent and bivalent vaccine prepared from other isolates including imported reference strains of P. multocida demonstrated no protection in experimentally vaccinated ducks and chicken against challenged with live bacteria of neither BCC 2331 nor with DY2. From these retrospective studies, it was concluded that the local isolates P. multocida designated as BCC 2331 and DY2 could be used as candidates of prototype vaccine or master seed vaccine but their effectiveness still need to be evaluated under field conditions.

Key words: Pasteurella multocida, Indonesian isolates, inactive vaccines, fowl cholera    2008

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Kusumaningsih, Anni; Supar; Ariyanti, Tati( Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia)Sudarwanto, M.; Wibawan, IWT(FKH IPB). Profil resistensi terhadap antimikroba isolat Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis yang diisolasi dari ayam dan produknya. Seminar Nasional Hari Pangan Sedunia XXVII: Dukungan Teknologi untuk Meningkatkan Produk Pangan Hewani dalam Rangka Pemenuhan Gizi Masyrakat. Bogor. 21 Nop 2007. p.200 - 206. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Jakarta (Indonesia) Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hari Pangan Sedunia XXVII: Dukungan Teknologi untuk Meningkatkan Produk Pangan Hewani dalam Rangka Pemenuhan Gizi Masyrakat. Jakarta(Indonesia). Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. 2008. xiii, 287 p.

 

Abstrak

Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis merupakan bakteri patogen yang menginfeksi ayam dan manusia. Bakteri ini juga merupakan penyebab foodborne disease pada manusia. Pemakaian antimikroba pada ternak yang tidak terkendali dapat mengakibatkan timbulnya resistensi antimikroba pada bakteri patogen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah umuk mengisolasi Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis asal ayam dan mengetahui profil resistensi bakteri terhadap antimikroba. Bakteri diisolasi dari sampel berupa campuran hati dan jantung,Serta usapan rektal ayam yang diambil dari pasar dan peternakan ayam di Bogor dan Bandung. Identifikasi bakteri dilakukan pada media agar selektif xylose lysine deoxycholate, dilanjutkan serotiping Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis menggunakan antiserum 0 dan H. Uji resistensi antimikroba disertakan pula isolat Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis yang diisolasi sebelumnya dengan metode agar difusi. Hasil isolasi dan seotiping dari 81 campuran hati dan jantung ayam dapat diisolasi 11 Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis, sedangkan dari 231 usapan rektal ayam negatif Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. Hasil uji resistensi dari 36 isolat Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis berturut turut resisters terhadap neomisin (63,8%), doksisiklin (58,3%), tetrasiklin (44,4%), streptomisin (38,8%), siprofloksasin (34,2%), gentamisin (16,6%), oksitetrasiklin (16,6%), enrofloksasin (8,3%), trimetoprin sulfametoksasol (5,5%), dan kloramfenikol (5,5%). Multiresistensi isolat Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis terhadap 2 sampai lebih dari 5 jenis antimikroba, terutama terhadap streptomisin, neomisin, gentamisin, tetrasiklin, doksisiklin, dan siprofloksasin. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis dapat diisolasi dari campuran organ hati dan jantung ayam dan adanya resistensi Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis terhadap antimikroba dapat berdampak negatif terhadap manusia. Untuk mengurangi resiko penularan Salmonella enterica serotipe Enteritidis dari ayam ke manusia dilakukan dengan cara memasak pangan tersebut dengan benar.

Kata kunci: Salmonella enterica serotipe enteritidis, isolasi, serotiping, uji resistensi antimikroba.

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Ariyanti, Tati; Supar; Kusumaningsih, Anni( Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia) Cemaran Escherichia coli pada bahan pangan asal ternak periode 2000-2004 dan resistensinya terhadap antibiotika. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hari Pangan Sedunia XXVII: Dukungan Teknologi untuk Meningkatkan Produk Pangan Hewani dalam Rangka Pemenuhan Gizi Masyrakat. Bogor(Indonesia). 21 Nop 2007. p.207 - 211. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Jakarta (Indonesia). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hari Pangan Sedunia XXVII : Dukungan Teknologi untuk Meningkatkan Produk Pangan Hewani dalam Rangka Pemenuhan Gizi Masyrakat. Jakarta(Indonesia). Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. 2008. xiii, 287 p.

 

Abstrak

Escherichia coli merupakan bakteri enterik bersifat oportunis patogen. Serotipe tertentu sangat patogen terhadap hewan dan manusia. Keberadaannya pada bahan pangan asal ternak sebagai cemaran berpotensi menimbulkan masalah pada konsumen. Tujuan pengujian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keberadaan cemaran Ecoli pada bahan pangan asal ternak berupa sampel daging dan jeroan ayam, daging sapi, telur Berta produk olahannya berupa sosis, daging sapi asap maupun pepes ayam selama periode tahun 2000-2004. E. coli diisolasi dari sampel dari sampel dan diidentifikasi menggunakan media agar selektif EMB/ Mc Conkey, TSIA, semisolid dan uji IMViC. Uji resistensi terhadap antibiotika dilakukan dengan metode agar difusi menggunakan cakram kertas yang mengandung antibiotik. Dari 292 sampel yang diuji ditemukan positif E. coli sebanyak 221 sampel (75,68%). Lima isolat dilakukan uji resistensi terhadap 10 macam antibiotika. Empat isolat diantaranya multi resisten terhadap 3-5 macam antibiotika dan 1 isolat resisten terhadap 1 macam antibiotika. Dari fiasff tersebut disimpulkan tingkat cemaran E. coli pada bahan-bahan pangan asal ternak maupun olahannya sangat tinggi. Perlu adanya peningkatan dalam penerapan sanitasi yang baik dari awal produksi sampai tingkat konsumen untuk memperoleh jaminan pangan asal ternak yang aman untuk dikonsumsi.

Kata kunci: E toll, cemaran, pangan asal ternak   2008

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Ariyanti, Tati; Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Deteksi antibodi terhadap Salmonella enteritidis dan Salmonella pullorum pada ayam dengan ELISA menggunakan antigen somatik dan flagela. Jurnal Veteriner. (2007). V .8(3) p.111-118.

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Supar; Ariyanti, Tati( Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Karakterisasi molekuler Pasteurella multocida : Kaitannya dengan epidemiologi dan pengembangan vaksin isolat lokal. WARTAZOA. (2007). Vol.17(4) p.147-155.

 

Abstrak

Bakteri P. multocida menyebabkan penyakit pasteurellosis pada berbagai ternak dan hewan liar. Pasteurellosis yang  penting di Indonesia ialah Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) atau terkenal dengan nama penyakit ngorok atau SE (Septicaemia epizootica) pada ruminansia besar maupun kecil dan penyakit kholera pada unggas. Pengendalian penyakit SE pada ternak ruminasia dilakukan dengan aplikasi vaksin inaktif P. multocida strain Katha dari Burma, sedangkan kontrol kholera pada unggas menggunakan sediaan obat antibiotika. Sampai saat ini belum banyak teknik biologi molekuler untuk diferensiasi isolat lokal P. multocida dari berbagai tempat di Indonesia. DNA genomik  P. multocida pada kasus SE dari berbagai propinsi direaksikan dengan enzim restriksi endonuklease Apa I dan dianalisis secara pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); hasilnya berbeda dengan strain vaksin (Katha) dari Burma dan galur acuan lainnya. Demikian halnya dengan DNA genomik dari isolat lokal P. multocida penyebab kholera unggas. Bahkan pada isolat antar propinsi terdapat perbedaan pola fragmen genetik dari DNA genomiknya. Perbedaan pola restriksi endonuklease DNA tersebut juga merefleksikan perbedaan sifat patogenitas, antigenitas dan imunogenitasnya. Kajian vaksin isolat P. multocida dari kasus SE dan kasus kholera unggas isolat lokal yang

disimpan pada unit Bbalitvet Culture Collection (BCC) juga memberikan petunjuk yang mendukung tentang temuan perbedaan sifat molekuler genetiknya. Vaksin yang dibuat dari isolat lokal lebih baik dalam memberikan perlindungan imunologik atau respon antibodinya lebih tinggi dan konsisten dibandingkan dengan vaksin serupa yang dibuat dari galur luar negeri. Potensi pemanfaatan P. multocida sebagai sumber daya genetik dapat dikembangkan menjadi master seeds

untuk vaksin pasteurellosis (SE atau kholera unggas) isolat lokal yang sesuai dengan serotipe penyebab penyakit di lapangan, tetapi masih diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut.             2007

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Ariyanti, Tati; Supar( Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Pengendalian Coryza infeksius pada ayam. WARTAZOA. (2007). Vol.17(4) p.185-191.

 

Abstrak

Infectious coryza atau snot menular merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh

Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), menginfeksi saluran pernafasan bagian atas pada ayam petelur, ayam pedaging atau unggas lain baik pada peternakan rakyat maupun komersial. Infeksi pada stadium pertumbuhan menyebabkan pertambahan bobot badan turun, pada petelur dewasa produksi telur menurun sehingga menyebabkan kerugian ekonomi pada industri perunggasan. Kasus penyakit di lapangan sulit dikendalikan dengan antibiotika. Vaksinasi merupakan cara pengendalian penyakit yang paling ideal, tetapi kegagalan vaksinasi sering terjadi pada penggunaan vaksin coryzatrivalen (A, B, C serovar klasik) yang diimpor dari USA atau Eropa. Kegagalan tersebut diakibatkan oleh timbulnya strain varian B baru (selain H. paragallinarum serovar A, B dan C klasik), dimana sifat antigenisitas, imunogenisitas dan imunoproteksi vaksin galur klasik tidak sama dengan serovar HPG isolat lapang. Penelitian selama lebih dari 2 dekade yang dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner (Bbalitvet) telah menghasilkan isolat HPG serovarA, B, C klasik dan telah dikonservasi pada unit Bbalitvet Culture Collection(BCC). Studi pembuatan dan aplikasi vaksin isolat lokal sedang dirintis untuk mengetahui efektivitasnya. Dalam periode yang sama diketahui di Amerika Latin dan Afrika Selatan terdapat H. paragallinarum serovar B dan C baru yang menyebabkan kegagalan vaksinasi coryza yang menggunakan HPG serovar A, B, C klasik yang diimpor dari USA dan Eropa. Dari uraian tersebut perlu dicermati dan diteliti tentang penggunaan vaksin coryza isolat lokal. Pengamatan lebih lanjut perlu dilakukan di lapang untuk menentukan efektivitas vaksin isolat lokal dan surveilans terhadap munculnya HPG varian baru sehingga penyempurnaan vaksin isolat lokal dapat dilakukan dengan baik.

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Batan, I Wayan (Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Udayana); Boediono, Arief; Djuwita, Ita; Lay, Bibiana Widiati (Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Institut Pertanian Bogor); Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner). Pelacakan Perlekatan Bakteri Escherichia Coli K99 pada Zona Pelusida Embrio Mencit dengan Metode Enzym Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) dan Scanning ElectronMicroscope (SEM). Jurnal Veteriner. (2006). Vol. 7(1) p.29-38.

 

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Andriani; Noor, Susan Maphilindawati; Poeloengan, Masniari; Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Pengembangan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay untuk deteksi antigen Campylobacter jejuni pada daging ayam. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Bogor. 5-6 September 2006. p.774-782.

 

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Ariyanti, Tati; Supar( Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Proteksi antigen Salmonella enteritidis phage tipe 4 terhadap uji tantang galur homolog pada ayam. Widyariset. (2006). Vol.9(3) p.189-196.

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Ariyanti, Tati; Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Problematika salmonellosis pada manusia. Prosiding Lokakarya Nasional Penyakit Zoonosis. Bogor.15 Spetember 2005. p. 161-171. Bogor. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan. (2005).

 

Abstrak

Salmonellosis merupakan salah satu penyakit zoonosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen Salmonella spp. Rantai penularan salmonellosis berkaitan dengan sumber penularan ternak dan produknya atau foodborne disease. Pada manusia dikenal adanya salmonellosis-tifoid (demam tifoid yang disebabkan oleh S. typhi dan demam paratifoid yang disebabkan oleh S. paratyphi A dan B) serta salmonellosis-non tifoid (disebabkan oleh Salmonella spp. terutama S. enteritidis dan S. typhimurium). Salmonellosis-tifoid dan salmonellosis-non tifoid masih menjadi problem utama di beberapa negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Penyakit ini bersifat endemis hampir di semua kota besar di wilayah Indonesia dan terjadi terus meningkat sepanjang tahun. Diperkirakan demam tifoid terjadi sebanyak 60.000 hingga 1.300.000 kasus dengan sedikitnya 20.000 kematian per tahun. Strategi pencegahan penyakit yang efektif adalah deteksi kasus, perbaikan sanitasi lingkungan, pencegahan kontaminasi dalam industri makanan, menekan angka reactor salmonellosis pada pengawasan ternak, pendidikan kesehatan masyarakat serta eliminasi sumber infeksi. Vaksin oral yang dilemahkan, dikemas dalam kapsul enteric coated dan vaksin parenteral Vi polisakarida kapsul (Typhim ViR) dapat diaplikasikan dengan efektif pada daerah endemik.

Kata kunci: Salmonellosis, zoonosis, food-borne disease, tifoid, manusia

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Ariyanti, Tati; Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Peranan Salmonella enteritidis pada ayam dan produknya. WARTAZOA. (2005). V .15(2) p.57-65.

 

Abstract

Free pathogenic microorganism of food derived from animals is a prerequisite for human consumption . One of the important pathogenic microorganisms originated from animal product of food is Salmonella. Salmonella enteritidis is frequently found in chicken and spreads vertically as well as horizontally products (eggs, meats and meat products) by direct or indirect contact. Salmonella that contaminated animal product of food can cause foodborne disease in human . Foodborne disease associated with Salmonella occurred in some parts of the world including Indonesia . This problem needs attention from the government, producers and consumers. In the animal production especially chicken, it is demanded to provide animal food and their products free from Salmonella . This is an important indicator of safety food condition . Salmonella control programs in the animal production level begin with raising free-Salmonella day old chick with free Salmonella feed, good farm environmental sanitation . Further more, the monitoring program of Salmonella in farm and post harvest process needs to be conducted . Appropriate handlings of animals and their products are important to obtain food of animal products that are healthy and safe for human consumption .

Key word: Salmonella enteritidis, contamination, meat, egg

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Supar; Ariyanti, Tati(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Keamanan pangan produk peternakan ditinjau dari aspek penyakit. Wartazoa. (2005). V .15(4) p.187-205.

 

Abstrak

Animal diseases are tnajor factors affecting food producing anitnals at husbandry productions . The infectious and or non infectious diseases can influence the food quality of animal products and their safety for human consumption . The food safety of animal products becomes a world trade issue because it affects some aspects of human life quality and health . The food safety of anitnal products is defined at least by physical and health conditions of animal at preharvest period . It can be achieved by good manufacturing practice, beginning at animal production level up to the harvesting period . :During this period, the animals must be protected against infection by pathogens of either bacteria, viruses or protozoa . linportant animal diseases which often cause problems during animal husbandry productions are anthrax, salmonellosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, clostridiosis.colibacillosis,staphylococcosis.Some of the pathogens causing those diseases may also cause food poisoning and foodborne disease . The viral disease infection can affect food-safety at preharvest time but not at postharvest . At prcharvest period in fanns the disease can be controlled by vaccines and selected drug application  To obtain the good quality assurance of food producing animals and the safety for human consumption, the physical and the health conditions of animals can be determined visually . To determine the health status of food producing animals, each animal must be tested for the presence of pathogens and or specific antibody .This needs a veterinary laboratory facility with good equipments, chemical and diagnostic reagents .On the other hand, in order to pursue the good quality assurance of food producing animals up to the harvesting period, the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) and good agricultural practice (GAP) concepts in animal husbandry productions must be followed.

Key words: Animal products, preharvest, human consumption, food safety 187 2005

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Kusmiyati; Noor, Susan Maphilindawati; Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Leptospirosis pada hewan dan manusia di Indonesia. Wartazoa. (2005). Vol.15(4) p.213-220.

 

Abstrak

Leptospirosis is a disease caused by Leptospira spp. infection. It is a zoonotic disease that is world-widely distributed,particularly in the tropics, including Indonesia . Infected animals are the source of leptospirosis for humans, and these animals are secreting pathogens into the environment. The clinical signs off leptospirosis may vary from mild to severe and dead tray occur without a proper treatment . Due to the unspecific clinical sign, laboratory examination is required . However, isolation and identification the organism is time-consuming . Serological test is the most frequent way to confirm the clinical diagnosis, to determine prevalence in the community, and to conduct epidemiological studies . Vaccination with the appropriate antigen is used for controlling leptospirosis in animals . The multivalent Leplospira vaccine in Indonesia is developed according to the different types of serovar found in the field. The use of the appropriate vaccine combined with a good sanitation management could control leptospirosis in animals in the future .

Key words: Leptospirosis, zoonosis, diagnosis, control

  1. mfn=001202

Ariyanti, Tati; Supar; Djaenuri; Iskandar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Pengembangan Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay untuk evaluasi respon antibodi pada eggyolk dari ayam yang diimunisasi antigen sel utuh inaktif S. enteritidis phage tipe 4. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Bogor 12 - 13 September. 2005. p.1056-1069. Bogor. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan. (2005).

 

Abstrak

Salmonellosis is an important diasese in poultry industries that may occur in the animal level at farms as well as in the laying eggs or egg product. S. enteritidis phage type 4 is one of the most important serotype causing disease in chicken could spread vertically through the eggs as well as horizontally by direct contact. Detection S. enteritidis phage type 4 infections or its antibodies in eggs are important and appropriate for reducing egg-borne disease transmission. In this opportunity we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the presence of S. enteritidis phage type 4 antibody responses in egg derived from experimental chicken againsted somatic (O), extracellular toksin and H: g, m flagella antigen. A group of 14 weeks old of layer chicken (group I) were immunized with killed whole cell antigen of S. enteritidis phage type 4 isolated from Sukabumi. A group of the same age of other chicken (group II) were left unimmunized used as control. Each of that group were divided into 3 sub group designated as IA, IB, IC and IIA, IIB, IIC respectively. Two weeks post boostered subgroup IB and IIB were challenged with life homologous of S. enteritidis phage type 4 whereas subgroup IC and IIC were challenged 12 weeks post boostered, Subgroup IA, IIA were left unchallenged. ELISA antigen of whole sonicated extract, heated whole sonicated extract, extracellular toxins and H: g, m flagella antigen were prepared from homologous S. enteritidis phage type 4 serotype. The enzyme substract reaction of the ELISA were determined by optical density reading (OD), then converted to ELISA unit based on the positive control. The somatic (O) antibody responses and anti-toksin antibody responses were detected from egg yolk of chicken immunized with killed whole cell antigen. Anti H:g,m flagella antibody responses could be detected earlier at 14 days affer immunization. From four types of the ELISAs developed, the H:g,m flagella antigen coating ELISA microplates demonstrated specific for detecting anti H:g,m flagella antibody responses from eggs yolk, whereas somatic (O) antigen coating ELISA microplates detected anti-somatic (O) antibody from eggs, produced from chicken injected with other Salmonella serotype of group D. From this study concluded, the use of H:g,m flagella for coating ELISA microplate could be used for differentiation Salmonellosis infection status due to the S. enteritidis or other group D Salmonella.

Key Words: H:g,m Flagella, ELISA, S. enteritidis, Egg Yolk, Experimental Chicken  2005

  1. mfn=000673

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Restriksi endonuklease DNA genomik Pasteurella multocida isolat Indonesia, galur katha dan galur referen yang dianalisa dengan PFGE. JURNAL ILMU TERNAK DAN VETERINER. (2003).Vol.8(3) p.196-204.

 

Abstract

Genomic DNA restriction endonuclease from Pasteurella multocida isolated from Indonesia, katha strain andreference strains and analysed by PFGE. JITV 8(3): 196-204. Pasteurella multocida strains are the causative disease agents of wide range of domestic and wild animals in Indonesia. The most important serotypes are associated with Hemorrhagic septicaemic (HS) diseases in cattle and buffaloes, cholera in ducks and chickens. The HS disease associated with P. multocia in large ruminants in Indonesia is controled by killed whole cell vaccines produced by the use of P. multocida Katha strains. There is no discriminatory data of the molecular biology technique has been applied to investigate P. multocida isolates from different geographic locations in Indonesia. The purpose of this studies were to observe the genetic diversity among P. multocida isolated from various geograpic locations and compared with Katha vaccine strain and other reference strains. A total samples of 38 isolates and strains of P. multocida were analysed by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Each sample was grown in nutrient broth, cells were separeted by centrifugation. Whole cell pellet was mixed with agarose and then prepared agarose plugs. The genomic DNA of each sample was digested in situ (plug) with either restriction endonuclease of ApaI and/or BamHI. The digested genomic DNA of each sample was analysed by PFGE, the genomic DNA restricted profile of each sample was compared with others. The use of ApaI restriction endonuclease digestion and analysed by PFGE, demonstrated that 34 out of 38 P. multocia samples could be differentiated into 16 ApaI types, whereas based on the BamHI digestion of these samples were differentiated into 20 BamHI types. Genomic DNA restriction pattern of Indonesian P. multocida isolates originated from cattle and buffaloes associated with haemorrhagic septicaemic diseases demonstrated different pattern to those of vaccine Katha strain, poultry strains as well as the reference strains currenly kept at Balitvet Culture Collection (BCC) unit. Two P. multocida isolates derived from ducks with cholera disease showed similar pattern support the previous findings which exhibited similar pathogecity and vaccine protection. The majority of HS causing P. multocida isolates from some provinces in Indonesia belong to ApaI type 1 (7 isolates), six of these isolates belong to BamHI type 1. The BamHI restriction endonuclease digestion demonstrated higher discriminatory than that of ApaI. These restrection endonucleases digestion combined with PFGE analysis were effective for molecular defferentiation of P. multocida strains and could be applied to other bacterial veterinary pathogens as well as for local isolate vaccine sellection.

Key words: Pasteurella multocida, restriction endonuclease analysis, genomic DNA, PFGE            2003

  1. mfn=000592

Supar; Setiadi, Yudi; Djaenuri; Kurniasih, Nina; Poerwadikarta, M. Bhakti; Sjafei (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Pengembangan vaksin kolera unggas: I. proteksi vaksin Pasteurella multocida isolat lokal pada ayam terhadap uji tantang galur homolog dan heterolog. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner. (2001). Vol.6(1) p.59-67.

 

Abstract

Development of fowl cholera vaccine: I. Protection of Pasteurella multocida local isolate vaccine against challenge of homologous and heterologous strains. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner 6(1):59-67. Pasteurella multocida locally isolated from chicken and ducks (BCC 299, BCC 2331, DY1, DY2, 12TG, 15TG) and imported strains (BCC 1359, 1362; HEDDLESTON group 1 and 6 respectively) had been tested for its pathogenicity in the previous study. The aims of this experiment were to study the preparation of local isolate pasteurellosis vaccines and to determine the protective effect of that vaccines in chicken against the highly pathogenic local isolates of P. multocida. Killed monovalent, bivalent and polyvalent pasteurellosis vaccines were prepared and each was adjunvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel at a final concentration of 1.5% and the cell concentration was equal to the No 10 of MacFarland tube standard. Each of the vaccine prepared was used to vaccinated on a group of six week old of layer chicken (8 per group). Each chicken was subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml of vaccine, four weeks later each was boostered with similar vaccine with the same dose. Two weeks after giving the boostered vaccine each group of chicken were challenged, half with life bacterium of P. multocida BCC 2331 and other with DY2. Any chick which survive after challenge was designated as protected by vaccination. Before vaccination 1 ml of blood was drawn from each of chicken and then two weeks apart up to challenge. Serum from each sample was separated and kept in deep freeze until tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chicken vaccinated with killed whole cell P. multocida vaccines of monovalent (BCC 2331 or DY2) and bivalent (BCC 2331 + DY2) were protected against challenge with live bacterium of either BCC 2331 or DY2 at rate 67-100%. There was no protection in chicken vaccinated with either BCC 299, DY1, 12TG, 15TG, BCC 1359, or 1362 killed vaccine. Similarly no protection of chicken vaccinated with either DY1 + BCC299, 12TG + 15TG or BCC 1359 + BCC 1362 bivalent vaccines. The protection rate of the polyvalent local isolate vaccine was at average 50-75%. All vaccinated chicken showed the presence of antibody responses againsted the extract cell and whole cell antigens of either P. multocida BCC 2331 or DY2 local isolate as detected by ELISA. The antibody responses from vaccinated chicken against extra cellular antigens prepared from broth cultures of BCC 2331 and DY2 were detected only from vaccinated chicken with vaccine containing killed antigen of BCC 2331 and/or DY2 isolate. It is likely, the local isolate of P. multocida BCC 2331 and DY2 would be benefit for producing inactive fowl cholera vaccine use in Indonesia, but the protective antigen that enhances immune protection should be determined by means of immunoblotting techniques.

Key words: Pasteurella multocida, fowl cholera, vaccine, protection        2001

  1. mfn=000593

Supar; Setiadi, Yudi; Djaenuri; Kurniasih, Nina; POERWADIKARTA, M. BHAKTI; SJAFEI(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Pengembangan vaksin kholera unggas: II. patogenitas dan daya proteksi vaksin Pasteurella multocida isolat lokal pada itik percobaan. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak Dan Veteriner. (2001). Vol.6(2) p.120-125.

 

Abstract

The development of fowl cholera vaccine: II. Pathogenicity and vaccine protection of Pasteurella multocida local isolates in experimental ducks. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner 6(2):120-125.Pasteurellosis or fowl cholera in ducks occurs sporadically along the year in many high duck population areas of Java and other parts of Indonesia. Some isolates of Pasteurella multocida from ducks and chicken are kept at the BALITVET culture collection. The aims of this research were to evaluate the pathogenicity of local isolates and imported strains of P. multocida and to study the pasteurellosis local isolate vaccine and protection assay in ducks. Two imported strains of P. multocida (BCC 1359, BCC 1362) and 6 local isolates (BCC 299, BCC 2331, DY1, DY2, 12TG, 15TG) were used in this study. In the pathogenicity assays the imported strains and local isolates were activated in mice and in duct and then in brain hearth infusion broth containing 5% normal sheep serum. Each of broth culture was diluted, each dilution (102 and 104) of strains or isolates was injected intraperitoneally into a group of normal ducks. Antigen for vaccine, each was produced in sheep blood (5%) agar. Cells were harvested and killed with 0.1% formalin. Monovalent, bivalent, and polyvalent vaccines were prepared, at concentration equal to the Macfarland standard tube No 10, and each was adjuvanted with alhydrogel at final concentration of 1.5%. Each vaccine type was injected into a group of 10 week old ducks (8 animals per group), with 0.2 ml/injection. Four weeks later each animal in group were boostered with the same vaccine, dose, route as the previous injection. Before vaccination each animal was bleed through wing vena, then every two weeks, serum was collected and stored at -20oC. Two weeks after boostered, three days after the last blood sample collection, half animal of each group were challenged intraperitonelly with the BCC 2331 and half with DY2 live broth culture. The pathogenicity assays showed the only BCC 2331 and DY2 killed the experimental ducks, the other did not. The animals vaccinated with either BCC 2331, DY2 or bivalent (BCC 2331+DY2) vaccines were protected with either life bacterial challenged of either BCC 2331 or DY2 local isolates. It is likely, P. multocida BCC 2331 and DY2 isolates can be used for pasteurellosis candidate vaccine used in Indonesia, but it still needs more studies in the immunological of protective antigens.      

Key words: Pasteurella multocida, fowl cholera, ducks, vaccine, protection          2001

  1. mfn=000645

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Pemberdayaan plasma nutfah mikroba veteriner dalam pengembangan peternakan : harapan vaksin escherichia coli enterotoksigenik, enteropatogenik dan verotoksigenik isolat lokal untuk pengendalian kolibasilosis neonatal pada anak babi sapi. Wartazoa. 2001. Vol.11(1) p.36-43.

 

Abstrak

Enterotoksigenik Escherichia coli (ETEC) merupakan penyebab diare utama pada anak babi dan anak sapi neonatal. Prevalensi diare dan kematian anak babi antara 13,4%-43,7% dan 12,2%-31,6%. Prevalensi diare sapi perah 20-31%, dan kematian berkisar 19-24% per tahun. Bakteri ETEC penyebab diare pada babi mempunyai antigen perlekatan 987P, F41, K99 atau K88 atau lebih dari satu macam antigen K88K99 atau K99F41. E. coli K99, F41 atau K99F41 dapat diisolasi dari anak sapi perah diare di bawah umur 5 hari. Pengendalian infeksi ETEC pada babi dan sapi dengan obat antibiotika tidak efektif. Uji antibiogram isolat E. coli K88, K99, F41 dan 987P terhadap obat antibiotika menunjukan tingkat multiple resisten yang sangat tinggi, antara 4-6 macam antibiotika, antara lain: streptomisin, ampisilin, neomisin, eritromisin, oksitetrasiklin, kanamisin, trimethoprim-sulfametoksazole, sulfonamida dan khloramfenikol. E. coli K99 menunjukan tingkat resistensi sampai 9-15 macam antibiotika yang sering dipakai di lapangan. Dengan demikian strategi pengendalian alternatif dengan vaksin ETEC perlu dikembangkan. Vaksin ETEC multivalen dibuat dari galur lokal ETEC K88, K99, F41, dan 987P. Vaksin dibuat dalam bentuk mati dan diemulsikan dalam alhidrogel pada konsentrasi akhir 1,5% dan konsentrasi sel setara dengan tabung standar Mcfarland no. 10. Dua dosis vaksin ETEC (@ 2 ml) diinjeksikan secara subkutan pada induk babi umur kebuntingan 6 dan 2 minggu sebelum partus. Anak babi yang lahir dibiarkan menyusu induknya di bawah kondisi lapangan. Vaksin ETEC untuk sapi dibuat dari isolat lokal ETEC K99, F41 dan K99F41, dan dikombinasikan dengan EPEC yang bersifat verotoksigenik. Dua dosis (@ 5 ml) vaksin diinjeksikan pada induk sapi secara subkutan 6 dan 2 minggu sebelum prakiraan partus. Anak sapi perah diberi kolostrum atau susu dari induknya. Vaksin inaktif ETEC K88, K99, F41 dan 987P multivalen yang diinjeksikan pada induk babi menginduksi respon antibodi (IgG dan IgA) dalam serum dan kolostrum. Dalam serum didominasi oleh IgG dan di dalam susu IgA dan IgG. Dengan kata lain, vaksin ETEC yang diinjeksikan pada induk babi memberikan proteksi pasif pada anak babi yang menyusu pada pasca partus. Proteksi serupa terjadi pada induk sapi. Aplikasi 2 dosis vaksin ETEC multivalen pada induk babi tingkat akhir kebuntingan dapat menurunkan diare dan kematian anak babi secara drastis dari 30% menjadi 5%. Aplikasi vaksin ETEC sapi plus EPEC pada induk bunting dapat menurunkan kematian pedet dari 13% menjadi 0,7%. Vaksin ETEC mempunyai prospek yang baik sebagai pengganti antibiotika impor dalam pengendalian kolibasilosis pada babi dan sapi. Plasma nutfah ETEC, EPEC dan VTEC tersebut disimpan pada unit Balitvet culture collection (BCC) Bogor.

Kata kunci: Anak babi, sapi, plasma nutfah mikroba, ETEC, EPEC, VTEC, kolibasilosis, vaksin, pengendalian lapang

  1. mfn=000567

Supar; Setiadi, Yudi; Kurniasih, Nina; Poerwadikarta, M. Bhakti(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Patogenesis Pasteurella multocida isolat lokal pada mencit dan ayam. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner. (2000). Vol.5(1), p.59-64.

Abstract

The pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida local isolates in mice and chicken. Jurnal Ilmu Temak dan Veteriner 5 (1): 59-64. Avian cholera or fowl cholera is a bacterial disease caused by Pasteurella multocida strain of serogroup A, has been recognized as important disease in domestic poultry such as ducks and chicken. P. multocida strains derived from overseas and local isolates are stored as freeze dried and kept at the Research hlstitute for Veterinary Science (BALITVET) culture collection (BCC). Some of those bacteria are still alive and can be used as vaccine candidates. Each strain or isolate was activated in brain heart infusion broth containing foetal calf serum and incubated at 37°C then it was identitied by biochemical reactions. Field surveys Were conducted in Central Java and South Kalimantan to observe fowl cholera problems and sample collections for isolation of pathogens. Of the 14 of Pasteurella multocida strains or isolates from BCC, II strains (9 imported 2 local isolates) were still alive. In addition to this 2 isolates trom chicken and duck were viable. Seven out of 9 imported strains killed mice within 3 x 24 hours, similarly for the local isolates (BCC 299, 2331, DYI, DY2, 12TG, 15TG). However, the only BCC 2331 and DY2 isolates were able to kill two week old chicken witIlin 6 x 24 hours post inoculation. From this experiment indicated that the P. multocida local isolates (BCC 2,331 and DY2) are more pathogenic than that of imported strains. Two strains of imported P. multocida BCC 2331, 1362 and 6 local isolates (BCC 299, 2331, DYI, DY2, 12TG and 15TG would be selected for mono- and polyvalent vaccine candidates in the following experiments and the highly patogenic BCC 2331 and DY2 isolates would be used to challenge the vaccinated animals.

Key words: Pasteurella multocida local isolate, pathogenicity, vaccine against fowl cholera candidate

  1. mfn=000508

Supar; Poerwadikarta, M. Bhakti; Kurniasih, Nina; DJAENURI(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Pengembangan vaksin Escherichia coli alfa hemolitik pada verotoksigenik: respon antiverotoksik antibodi pada hewan percobaan mencit, kelinci dan sapi perah. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner. (1999). Vol.4(1) p. 35-47.

 

Abstract

Development of alpha hemolytic verotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine: Verotoxic antibody responses in experimental animals, mice, rabbits and dairy cows. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner 4(1): 35-47. Escherichia coli isolates showing alpha hemolytic on blood agar were found in calves with bloody diarrhoea from Bandung, Sukabumi and Bogor. Three E. coli isolates designated as (B34c, B909, B910) were pathogenic for mice and selected for vaccine candidates. Crude supernatant of tryptic soy broth (TSB) cultures precipitated with saturated ammoniumsulphate caused cytopathic effect on vero cell line. For vaccine preparation the isolates were grown on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Whole cell inactive vaccine containing equal proportion of each isolate was prepared and emulsified in aluminum hydroxide gel at a final concentration of 1.5% and cell concentration equal to the tube number 10 of MacFarland standard. Mice and rabbits were injected subcutaneously of monovalent vaccine with the dose of 0.2 ml and 1 ml respectively. Four weeks later mice or rabbits were boostered with the same dose. Before injection each animal was bleed, subsequently every two weeks period up to 4 weeks after the second injection. The sera were separated and kept at -20oC up to serological assay with an enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) was done. Vaccinated mice with VTEC were challenged with homologous isolate did not die, where as 60% of unvaccinated mice died within 2 days post challenged. Pregnant cows were given 2 doses of three valent vaccine 6 weeks and again 2 weeks before expected date of calving. Calves born were given colostrum and milk of the own mother. The three day old calf was challenged with three isolates of verotoxigenic E. coli studied. Calves born from vaccinated cows did not show diarrhoea at post challenged, whereas calf from unvaccinated cow demonstrated bloody diarrhoea at post challenged. From the experimental animals (mice and calves) demonstrated the presence of protection against challenged. The antiverotoxic antibody probably involved in important role of immunoprotection. These were supported by the presence of high titer anti verotoxic antibody in serum of experimental animals (mice and cows), as well as in experimental rabbits, but none in the unvaccinated animals.

Key words: E. coli, alpha hemolytic, verotoxic, dysentery, vaccine             1999

  1. mfn=000684

Supar; Mukmin, Yusuf; Kurniasih, Nina; Djaenuri(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Pengendalian penyakit brucellosis babi dengan eliminasi reaktor positif secara Enzyme Linked Immunoassay dan pemotongan selektif: suatu studi lapang pada peternakan intensif di Tangerang Jawa Barat. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Peternakan dan Veteriner. Bogor. 1 - 2 Desember 1998. p.935-946. Bogor. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan. (1999).

 

Abstrak

Penyakit keluron menular pada babi yang disebabkan oleh kuman Brucella sitis banyak terjadi pada peternakan pembibitan babi atau pada peternakan penggemukan dengan prevalensi serologik cukup tinggi (30-40%) . Pada umumnya peternak berkeyakinan, walaupun induk babi mengalami abortus, pada masa berahi berikutnya bila dikawinkan dapat bunting din beranak normal. Oleh karena itu, induk babi abortus masih dipelihara dan reaktor positif tersebut bercokol terus sebagai sumber penularan sehingga menyulitkan upaya pengendalian penyakit dan peremajaan (replacement), Problem utama ialah kasus abortus pada calon induk bunting sangat tinggi (60-80%). Teknik uji serologik dengan antigen benvarna rose bengal (RB test) Brucella abortus S19 dan enzyme-linked imntunosorbent assay (ELISA) diintroduksikan kepada peternak untuk eliminasi reaktor positif brucellosis yang bila dikombinasikan dengan pemotongan secara selektif, akan menurunkan prevalensi tanpa mengganggu tingkat produksi anak babi . Studi rintisan teknik tersebut di atas pada 2 peternakan pembibitan intensif (KJP, KJT) masing-masing dengan populasi dinamis induk 1 .000 dan 2.000 ekor dan mempunyai masalah bnlcellosis serupa  Penelitian dilakukan sejak bulan Juli 1993 hingga saat ini masih berlangsung. Induk babi yang sudah dinyatakan positif brucellosis tidak diuji lagi pada pemeriksaan berikutnya, dibandangkan dalam blok yang terpisah dan hanya dikawinkan dengan pejantan yang reaktor positif, Apabila sifat produksi tidak baik menjadi prioritas utama untuk culling. Induk babi yang negatif brucellosis dikawinkan hanya dengan pejantan negatif. Teknik seleksi reaktor positif bnlcellosis secara RBT yang dilakukan pada kedua peternakan tersebut tidak dapat menunmkan tingkat prevalensi seropositif Pada awal introduksi prevalensi seropositif 17-40% (sampel yang diuji) dalanl periode 30 bulan prevalensi malah naik menjadi 30-53%. Sedangkan dengan metode seleksi secara ELISA yang juga diikuti pemotongan secara selektif dapat menunmkan prevalensi seropositif dari 41-53% menjadi 6 - 8% dalam periode 27 bulan. Bila dilanjutkan dengan priode yang sama di peternakan tersebut akan terbebas dari brucellosis. Dari dua macam teknik yang diterapkan pada peternak tersebut, teknik ELISA lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan teknik RBT. Apabila teknik ELISA ini diikuti dengan perbaikan man ijemen yang baik akan memberikan pengaruh terhadap penurunan tingkat prevalensi lebih baik . Hasil-hasil penelitian ini akan dikemukakan dan dibahas secara rinci untuk dimasyarakatkan.

Kata kunci: Brucella suis, abortus, ELISA, pengendalian lapangan

                1999

  1. mfn=000457

Supar; Kusmiyati; Poerwadikarta, M. Bhakti(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Aplikasi vaksin enterotoksigenik Escherichia coli (ETEC) K99, F41 polivalen pada induk sapi perah bunting dalam upaya pengendalian kolibasilosis dan kematian pedet neonatal. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner. (1998). Vol.3(1) p. 27-33.

 

Abstract

The application of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K99, F41 polyvalent vaccine in pregnant dairy cattle to control neonatal colibacillosis and mortality of calves . Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner 3 (1): 27-33 . Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains possessing either K99, F41 or K99F41 are responsible for causing neonatal diarrhoea and mortality of calves and difficult to control using antimicrobial drugs. A whole cell ETEC vaccine containing fimbrial antigens of polyvalent strains based on field serotypes was produced . The efficacy of ETEC vaccine used to control neonatal colibacillosis of dairy calves was studied in experimental animals and field trials. Five pregnant dairy cow were used for experimental study. Three animals were injected subcutaneously with 5 ml vaccine at 6 weeks and again 2 weeks before expected date of calving, others were left unvaccinated as control. Two calves born from vaccinated cows were given colostrum and milk from their own mothers. A calf born from vaccinated cow was not given colostrum, but milk from other vaccinated cow at day 8 . Three day old calves receiving colostrum of vaccinated cows were challenged with 2 ml either ETEC K99 or F41 suspension containing 108 colony forming units per ml did not show clinical signs of diarrhoea and their body weight increased progressively. Whereas, a calf born from unvaccinated group was challenged with ETEC K99 developed clinical sign of diarrhoea at 15 hours later and died at 8 days post-inoculation . A calf born from unvaccinated cow was challenged with ETEC F41 developed watery diarrhoea, it did not die, but its body weight relatively did not increase. The use of two doses ofpolyvalent ETEC vaccine at late gestation gave protection to the suckling offspring against challenged . Under farm conditions, dams vaccination with 2 doses of polyvalent ETEC vaccine 6 week and 2 weeks before expected date of calving reduced the calf mortality from average of 13% per months to 0.7%. It was concluded that dams vaccination with polyvalent ETEC containing K99 and F41 fimbrial antigens gave protection to their suckling offsprings or through consuming their colostrum or milk against homologous ETEC infection.

Key words: Calf, colibacillosis, ETEC, dams vaccination     1998

  1. mfn=001612

Sudibyo, Agus; Priadi, Adin; Darodjat, M.; Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia) Pengembangan vaksin oral Brucellosis: Tingkat proteksi vaksin oral Brucella suis galur 2 terhadap tantangan Brucella suis isolat lapang pada marmot. Prosiding Seminar Hasil-hasil Penelitian Veteriner. Bogor. 18-19 Pebruari, 1998. p.51-56.

 

  1. mfn=001613

Sudibyo, Agus; Priadi, Adin; Darodjat, M.; Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia) Perbandingan tingkat proteksi antara vaksin Brucella suis galur 2 diberikan secara oral dan subkutan terhadap tantangan Brucella suis isolat lapang pada babi. Prosiding Seminar Hasil-hasil Penelitian Veteriner. Bogor. 18-19 Pebruari, 1998. p.57-63. Bogor. Balai Penelitian Veteriner. 1998.

 

  1. mfn=001621

Kusmiyati; Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia) Escherichia coli verotoksik dari anak sapi perah penderita diare. Prosiding Seminar Hasil-hasil Penelitian Veteriner. Bogor. 18-19 Pebruari, 1998. p.103-108. Bogor. Balai Penelitian Veteriner. 1998.

 

  1. mfn=001976

Sudibyo,Agus Priadi,Adin Darodjat, M Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Pengembangan Vaksin Oral Brucellosis: Tingkat Protekisi Vaksin Oral Brucella Suis Galur 2 Terhadap Tantangan Brucella Suis Isolat Lapangan Pada Marmot. Proceedings Seminar Hasil-Hasil Penelitian Veteriner. Bogor. 18-19 Pebruari 1998. p.51-56. Bogor. Balai Penelitian Veteriner. (1998).

  1. mfn=001977

Sudibyo,Agus Priadi,Adin Darodjat, M Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Perbandingan Tingkat Proteksi Antara Vaksin Brucella Suis Galur 2 DiBerikan Secara Oral Dan Sebkutan Terhadap Tantangan Brucella Suis Isolat Lapang Pada Babi. Proceedings Seminar Hasil-Hasil Penelitian Veteriner. Bogor. 18-19 Pebruari 1998. p.57-63. Bogor. Balai Penelitian Veteriner. (1998).

 

Abstract

Protection rate comparation between BruceIla strain 2 given orally and subcutaneously against field isolate of Bruce//a suis challenge in pigs. Presiding Seminar Hasil-hasil Penelitian I"eteriner: 57-63. BrucellosiS is one of the infectious reproductive diseases of pigs. The agent is not only spread between pig to pig, but also spread to human which work in pig husbandry and abattoir. Vaccination is an effective method for controlling brucellosis in pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection rate of Brucella suis strain 2 vaccine to challenge with field isolate of B. suis biotype I in pigs. Sixteen pigs were used. divided into four groups each of 4 pigs. Group 1, vaccinated twice by subcutaneous route with B. suis S2 and then boostered with field isolate of B. suis killed vaccine. Group 2. vaccinated 3 times by oral route with B. sills S2. Group 3. vaccinated twice by subcutaneous route with field isolate of B. suis killed vaccine. Group 4 scar unvaccinated and served for control. One and half months post vaccination, all pigs were challenged with field isolate of B. suis biotype 1. Two months after challenged, all pigs were killed and protection rate NFU!, calculated based on number of'B. suis reisolated from several tissues or organs. The result showed that in group there was 36 colony forming unit (CFU) per 20 mg found on 20.9% of tissues of 2 pigs. In group 2, there was 4 CFU per 20 mg found on 12.5% of tissues of I pig. In group 3. there was 190 CFU per 20 mg found on 33.3% of tissues of 4 pigs. In group 4, there was 388 CFU per 20 mg found on 73.9% of tissues of 4 pigs.

Keywords: Brucellosis. vaccine, oral route, B. suis S2, pigs             1998

  1. mfn=001981

Kusmiyati Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Escherichia Coli Verotoksik Dari Anak Sapi Perah Penderita Diare. Proceedings Seminar Hasil-Hasil Penelitian Veteriner. Bogor. 18-19 Pebruari 1998. p.103-108. Bogor. Balai Penelitian Veteriner. (1998).

  1. mfn=000613

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Mastitis subklinis pada sapi perah di Indonesia : masalah dan pendekatannya. Wartazoa. 1997. Vol.6(2) p. 48-52.

 

Abstrak

Mastitis pada sapi perah merupakan salah satu penyakit yang sangat merugikan, karena menurunkan kualitas dan produksi susu . Penyakit ini tersebar luas di berbagai belahan dunia (Dohoo Dan Leslie, 1991 ; Dohoo Dan Morris, 1993),Termasuk Indonesia (Hirst Et Al, 1984, 1985 ; Budiharta Dan Warudju, 1985 ; Warudju Dan Budiharta, 1985) . Penyakit tersebut dapat dibedakan dalam bentuk yang klinis dan subklinis . Para peternak sapi perah umumnya sudah mengenalbentuk mastitis klinis . Akan tetapi untuk mastitis subklinis (MSK) peternak umumnya belum mengetahui,karena tidak tampak tanda-tanda klinisnya. Untuk mengetahui adanya MSK perlu diketahui jumlah kandungan sel somatik dalam susu (Hirst et al 1985) .Distribusi MSK dalam peternakan sapi perah tergantung kepada distribusi infeksi mikroba pathogen mastitis dalam kelenjar susu atau mammae.Faktor penting yang mempengaruhi distribusi MSK pada sapi perah ialah terdapatnya kuartir (puting susu) yang terinfeksi oleh patogen mastitis pada tiap-tiap sapi perah. Jumlah sel somatik pada susu beberapa hari awal laktasi bukan merupakan indikator yang baik adanya infeksi pada kelenjar susu . Pada sapi yang tidak terinfeksi oleh mikroba patogen mastitis, jumlah sel somatik akan turun sampai umur 2 minggu post partus dan selanjutnya jumlah sel somatik akan tetap stabil . Akantetapi bila terjadi infeksi, jumlah sel somatik akan naik (DOHoo dan MORRIS, 1993) . Pada kondisi ini kemungkinan besar jumlah sel somatik dalam susu akan naik, sejalan dengan peningkatan jumlah sel somatik diikuti dengan penurunan produksi susu .  1997

  1. mfn=000444

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Deteksi gen pengendali sintesis antigen perlekatan K88, K99 dan enterotoksin pada Escherichia coli yang diisolasi dari anak babi dan anak sapi penderita diare di Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner. (1996). Vol.2(1) p. 60-65

 

Abstract

The detection of K88, K99 fimbrial antigen and enterotoxin genes of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets and calves with diarrhea in Indonesia Jurnal lbnu Ternak ran Veteriner 2 (1) .Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains cause diarrhoeal disease in piglets and calves in Indonesia. These strains possess two virulence factors namely attachment and enterotoxin antigens . These factors could be detected phenotypically and genetically. Haemolytic Escherichia coli (E coli) isolates possessing K88 fimbrial antigen associated with 0-group 108 and 149. They were positive for K88 gene and demonstrated their ability to produce heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and genetically were all positive for LT gene . Seventeen isolates ofE coli K88 which associated with 0-group 149 were positive forSTb gene, other O-serotypes were negative . Ten isolates of Ecoli K88 which associated with 0-group 108 possessed K88, K99, LT and STa genes, but negative for STb gene . However, phenotypically the K99 antigen and STa toxin were not expressed under laboratory conditions, the reason was not well understood . E. coli K99 strains isolated from calves with diarrhoea were all associated with 0-group 9 and produced STa toxin when tested by suckling mousse bioassay. The E. coli K99 calf isolates were all hybridized with K99 and STa gene only . It is likely that K99 gene is associated with STa gene . The DNA hybridization technique is more convenience to be used for confirmation diagnosis of colibacillosis, however, not all veterinary laboratories could perform these tests .

Key words: Excherichia coli, probe, gene detection, virulence determinant          1996

  1. mfn=000608

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)).Kolibasilosis pada anak sapi perah di Indonesia. Wartazoa. (1996). Vol.5(1) p.26-34.

 

Abstrak

Sapi perah merupakan sumber penghasil susu, yang dapat diupayakan clan clitingkatkan sehingga kontinuitas produksi susu dalam negeri dapat tercapai . Akan tetapi kendala penyakit merupakan salah faktor penghambat terhadap daya produksi sapi clan produktifitasnya . Sapi perah, seperti halnya ternak lain, sangat rentan terhadap berbagai infeksi penyakit, baik penyakit bakteri, virus atau penyakit lainnya . Salah satu penyakit yang merupakan kendala penting ialah penyakit neonatal diare yang disebabkan oleh infeksi bakteri Escherchia coli (E.coll), secara umun dinamakan kolibasilosis Kolibasilosis merupakan salah satu penyakit penting pada usaha peternakan babi clan sapi perah . Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh infeksi bakteri enterotoksigenik E. coli (ETEC) yang mempunyai antigen perlekatan K99, F41 atau K99F41 (SUPAR, 1986 ; SUPAR et al., 1988, 1989 ; SUPAR, 1990) . Anak sapi dapat terinfeksi oleh ETEC pada umur beberapa jam sesudah dilahirkan hingga umur beberapa hari setelah dilahirkan . Anak sapi neonatal yang terinfeksi ETEC menderita diare terus menerus, tinja encer seperti air yang berwarna putih kekuning-kuningan . Ternak neonatal yang menderita diare terus menerus mengalami dehidrasi, kehilangan cairan elektrolit clan kemudian mati . Akan tetapi infeksi E. co/i enterotoksaemik, anak sapi mati mencladak tanpa disertai tandatanda klinis diare (HAMILTON, 1985) . Sedangkan E. coli yang mempunyai sifat memproduksi "shigalike toxin" menyebabkan disentri pada anak sapi sesudah usia neonatal (CHANTER et al ., 1986 ; DORN et al., 1993) .              1996

  1. mfn=000803

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Studi kolibasilosis pada anak sapi perah dan deteksi Escherichia coli K99, F41,K99F41. Prosiding Temu Ilmiah Nasional Bidang Veteriner. Bogor. 12 - 13 Maret 1996. p.148-155.

 

Abstract

Eschcrichia coli strains possessing either K99 or F41 pili are responsible for causing diarrhoea and mortality of neonatal calves, world wide distributed. Field studies were undertaken in dairy herds in Bogor. Sukabumi and Bandung areas of West Java to identify the distribution calf mortality and diarrhoea associated with E. coli possessing either K99 or F41 pili antigens. Calf mortality was recorded at herd visits. During herd visits rectal swab samples were collected from diarrhoeic and normal calves. Monospecific anti K99-, P41- and K99F41.anlisera were produced in rabbits and prepared as co-agglutination reagents for pill typing. Mortality ofcalves recorded in 53 dairy herds in Bogor, 37 herds in Sukabumi and 32 bads in Bandung areas over one year period of 1992 were 6,9% (13/189), 41,9%(127/303) and 9.5% (15/157) respectively. Diarrhoea in calves in the dairy herds studied of each area were 22,3% (21/94), 27,9%(42/1610 and 24,1%(41/177) respectively. E. coli isolates were found in either normal or diarrhoeic calves. 1lowevcr, E. coli isolates possessing either K99 or F4I pili were found only in calves with profuse watery diarrhoea under ten days of age front Sukabumi 4,9%(2/41) and Bandung 7,1%(3/42), with an average of 4,8% (5/104). In addition, hemolytic E. coh isolatesneither with K99, F41 and nor with K99F41 were found at 49.0% (51/104) in calves with bloody diarrhoea. The persistence of E. coh K99, F41 and K99F41 serotypes in dairy herds studied, an outbreak of colibacillosis in calves may occur at any time in those herds. The development of E. coil multivalent vaccine containing K99, F4I antigens and hemolytic strains needs to be investigated further.

Key words : Collibacillosis, calves, diarrhoea         1996

  1. mfn=001786

Supar(Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Bogor). Studies on piglet Diarrhoea associated with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and its control by vaccination. Hemera Zoa. (1995). Vol.77(2), p. 66-77.

 

Abstract

Piglet neonatal diarrhoea occured in all the piggeries studied in Indonesia. Field studies demonstrated the prevalence of diarrhoea in all piggeries were at range from 13.4% to 43.7% with and average 24.7%. The majority of piglets with diarrhoea were in the first 2 weeks of life. Mortality of piglets were at rates between 12.2% to 31.6% with an average 17.9%. The distribution of piglet mortality preceded by diarrhoea recorded in an intensive study in a piggery G for a seven week period showed a high positive correlation with diarrhoea (r2 = 0.79; P<0.01), thus confirming that diarrhoea has a significant influence on mortality during the neonatal period. Piglet neonatal diarrhoea was found to be associated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil (ETEC) expressing either the 987P, F41, IC99 or K88 fimbrial antigen. E. coli expressing for more than one fimbrial antigen K88, K99 and K99 F41 were also found in a limited numbers. E. Coli 987P predominated,all were non haemolytic, majority were associated with 0-group 20, less frequently with either 09 or E. • coil F41 isolates were non haemolytic and associated with either 0- group 101 or 0-group 9. E. colt IC99 isolates were associated with either 0-group 20, 64, or 0-group 101. E. coli K88 isolates were haemolytic and associated with either 0-group 108, 138, 149 or 157. Attempts to control piglet neonatal diarrhoea associated with ETEC by antibiotic treatments on farm were reported unsuccessful. Antibiotic sensitivity assays of E. coli isolates bearing either K88, K99, F41 or 987P fimbrial antigen confirmed a high level of multiple antibiotic resistant between 4 to 6 antibiotics, including streptomycin,ampicillin, oxytetracycline, kanamycin, neomycin, trimethoprim and suphamethoxazole and sulphonamides. E. coil K99 showed higher level resistant up to 9 of antibiotics tested.As an alternative to chemotherapy with antibiotics, a vaccination strategy was investigated.An inactive multivalent ETEC vaccine containing K88, K99, F41 and 987P fimbrial antigens and somatic antigens of 0-group 9, 20, 64, 108, 138, 149 and 157 was prepared. Field trials to control piglet neonatal colibacillosis were conducted in some piggeries. The local field isolate vaccine was compared to a similar commercial vaccine acquired from abroad which content 5 important fimbrial antigens. Pregnant sows were injected intramuscularly with 2 ml of vaccines 6 weeks and again 2 weeks before expected date of farrowing. Piglets born from vaccinated and unvaccinated sown were allowed to suckle their own mothers. Pregnant sow vaccination produced a highly significant reduction diarrhoea and mortality rates.

Key words : piglets, diarrhoea, E. coil, control, vaccine.

  1. mfn=000422

Arifin, Zainal; Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Dampak ekonomi penggunaan vaksin Escherichia coli enterotoksigenik untuk pengendalian kolibasilosis neonatal pada anak babi. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner. (1995). Vol.1(1) p. 68-71

 

Abstract

Economic impact of enterotoxigenic lwcchetichia coli vaccine used to control piglet neonatal colibacillosis . Jutnal Him Temak tan Vetetiner 1 (1) : 68-71 . Neonatal diarrhoea associated with enterotoxigenic Ewhericia coli (ETEC) infections in piglets is common in most piggeries. Control of this disease is difficult with antimicrobial drugs under field conditions . It is due to the high precentage of ETEC strains resistant against there drugs. Field trials of E. coli vaccine were conducted to investigate the effect of dam vaccination on the reduction of diarrhoea and mortality rates. This study was designed in a factorial completely raralomizul block design . Vaccinated and unvaccinated dams was the first factor, while the second factor was location of the piggeries (Jakarta and Bogor) . Vaccination of sows at late gestation using a local polivalent ETEC vaccine appeared to have a dramatic reduction diarrhoea rate (P <_ 0 .0004) and mortality ride (P < 0.(x1001) in piglets. The reduction diarrhoea rate anxings the vaccinated sows in both piggeries was not significantly different (P <_ 0 .2338) . But, the mortality rate of piglets was significantly different in the vaccinated sows (P <_ 0 .026) . The economic impacts using polyvalent ETEC vaccine in controlling colibacillosis are the reduction of diarrhoea and mortality rates which leads to an increase of eveaning in piglets. These will be discussed.

Key words: Piglets, neonatal diarrhoea, E. coli vaccine, economic impact                1995

  1. mfn=000652

SUPAR; CHOTIAH, Siti; MOEKTI, GOZALI (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Penyakit-penyakit infeksius pada babi dan upaya pengendaliannya. Prodising Seminar Nasional Perternakan dan Veteriner. Cisarua, Bogor. 7-8 Nopember 1995. p.319-343. Jilid I.

 

Abstrak

Babi banyak diternakkan di berbagai daerah di Indonesia, baik secara subsisten maupun komersial. Produk, petemakan ini sebagian besar digunakan untuk mencukupi kebutuhan protein bagi penduduk Indonesia non Muslim, dan sebagian kecil diekspor. Babi diketahui rentan terhadap berbagai infeksi oleh bakteri, virus dan parasit. Dengan demikian penyakit merupakan salah satu kendala penting pada pengembangan dan produksi ternak tersebut. Escherichia coli enterotoksigenik (ETEC) diketahui sebagai penyebab diare utama pada usia neonatal sampai pasca sapih; dengan angka kematian berkisar 20-40% anakan. Dengan demikian infeksi ETEC (kolibasilosis) dapat menimbulkan kerugian ekonomi. Hal ini dapat terjadi di semua petemakan babi besar atau kecil. Etiologi kolibasilosis pada anak babi terdiri atas ETEC yang mempunyai antigen perlekatan atau fimbriae K88, K99, F41 atau 987P. Bakteri ETEC yang mempunyai lebih dan satu jenis antigen perlekatan seperti K88K99 atau K99F41 dapat ditemukan dalam jumlah terbatas. Antigen perlekatan tersebut berasosiasi dengan antigen somatik atau 09,20,64,1131,108,138,149,157• Di samping itu, E. coli yang mempunyai antigen kapsul K81 atau K85ab,ac berasosiasi dengan antigen somatik 0115,138,141,157.. Uji antibiogram isolate ETEC dari anak babi penderita diare sudah menunjukkan tingkat resistensi multipel terhadap 2-9 macam antibiotika (96%), sehingga pengendalian kolibasilosis dengan antibiotika di lapangan sangat su lit. Penggunaan vaksin ETEC multivalen inaktif, yang mengandung semua jenis antigen fimbriae dan antigen somatik, pada induk babi pada masa akhir kebuntingan dapat menurunkan kasus diare dan kematian anak babi yang dilahirkan secara drastis. Oleh karena itu vaksin ETEC seyogyanya dimasyarakatkan sebagai altematif penanggulangan penyakit secara medikasi. Pada periode pasca sapih masalah infeksi penyakit lain sering terjadi karena kondisi stres, pergantian pakan dan lingkungan. Pada periode ini umum terjadi diare pasca sapih, infeksi saluran pernafasan oleh patogen seperti Mycoplasma sp., Bordetella sp., dan Actinobacillus sp. Disamping itu, kematian babi menjelang masa potong akibat pasteurellosis dan erysipelas dapat terjadi secara sporadis setiap tahun. Penggunaan vaksin multivalen merupakan harapan pada masa depan untuk menekan pemakaian antibiotika dan menghidari cemaran pangan dari residu.

Kata kunci : Babi, penyakit infeksius, ETEC, Indonesia.     1995

  1. mfn=000759

Kusmiyati; Supar; Moekti, Gozali(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Kloning molekuler DNA genomik Escherichia coli enterotoksigenik tipe 987p: sebuah kajian mengenai pengembangan vaksin secara rekayasa genetik. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Veteriner untuk Meningkatkan Kesehatan Hewan dan Pengamanan Bahan Pangan Asal Ternak. Cisarua, Bogor. 22 - 24 Maret 1994. p.165-172.

 

Abstract

In order to analyse DNA fragments encoding synthesis of adhesin antigens in enterotoxigenic Escherichia cell 987P, a blind molecular cloning was undertaken. Genomic DNA was extracted from field isolates of E. coil bearing 987P adhesin, and fragmented utilizing restriction enzymes Sau3A or EcoRV. The fragmented genomic DNA was then used to generate libraries in the E. coil XL1-Blue expression system employing phagemid pBluescript II SK vector. AU clones suspected recombinant DNA were grown on selective medium for propagating 987P adhesin antigen. Six recombinat clones (mutants) were selected to be tested serologically using antiserum anti 987P adhesin antigen raised in rabbits. Of the 15 mutants, 13 of which were found to be able to express a homologous polypeptide compound against 987P anti adhesin antibody. The present study may therefore suggest that a DNA fragment clone is located in the area of coding sequence for the synthesis of adhesion antigen in enterotoxigenic Escherichia cob 987P. Further studies may be required particularly in connection to the determination of the sequence of DNA fragment clone, expression of gene clone, and the potential use of expressing components as sub-unit vaccines

  1. mfn=000760

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Distribusi infeksi Escherichia coli enterotoksigenik pada anak babi di Sumatera Utara dan prospek pengendaliannya dengan vaksin. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Veteriner untuk Meningkatkan Kesehatan Hewan dan Pengamanan Bahan Pangan Asal Ternak. Cisarua, Bogor. 22 - 24 Maret 1994. p.173-179.

 

Abstract

Piglet neonatal diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) containing either 1(88, K99, F41 or 987P antigen occurred in some piggeries in North Sumatra (Medan and its suroundings). Antibiotic sensitivity assays of these isolates confirmed high level of multiple antibiotic resistence to between 2 - 9 antibiotics. Attemps to control piglet neonatal diarrhoea associated with colibasillosia by vaccination were conducted. A killed multivalent E. coli vaccine containing K88, K99, F41 and 987P fimbrial antigens was prepared from E. coli field isolates (Bogor and Jakarta) of 0-groups 9, 20, 64, 101, 108, 138, 149 and 157, adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel. A group of pregnant sows was injected with 2 ml of multivalen E. coil vaccine at 70-75 days and boostered at 100-105 days of gestation. A group of sows was left unvaccinated. Piglets born from vaccinated and unvaccinated sows were allowed to suckle their own mothers. All other management procedures were remained unchanged. Under field conditions sow vaccination at late gestation caused a mark reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea and the mortality rates in piglets born alive in the the first two weeks of life from 14.3 to 3.2 and 14.8 to 3.1 respectively.  1994

  1. mfn=000761

Moekti, Gozali; Supar; Kusmiyati(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Evaluasi mengenai spesifisitas antibodi monoklonal K99 terhadap antigen perekatan Escherichia coli enterotoksigenik. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Veteriner untuk Meningkatkan Kesehatan Hewan dan Pengamanan Bahan Pangan Asal Ternak. Cisarua, Bogor. 22 - 24 Maret 1994. p.180-188.

 

Abstract

In attempt to develop an improved diagnostic tool for neonatal colibacillosis in calves, monoclonal antibodies (McAb) directed against K99-adhesin derived from a reference strain of enterotoxigenic Escheridda con (Compton, K12; K99) were produced. Specificity of McAb produced was evaluated using a slide conglutination teat, indirect enzyme-linked immunosothent assay (ELISA), and immunoblotting. Antigens used for the specificity testing were prepared from known Ecoif  K99 of bath homologous (Compton, KU; K99) and heterologous (841), field-isolates (BL413, G1231, G1150 and 2631), and those of known as 1(99-negative E. coil (i.e. types 1(88, F41 and 987P). The present study resulted in a panel of 20 hybridomas secreting antibodies specific to K99-adhesin. Two of the total hybridomas obtained, 11(99-B5 and 1K99-C9, were cloned consecutively producing 14 and 10 clones, which were then found to be stabile up to the second cloning. Of 24 McAbs produced from the total clones, three antibodies were tested using a slide agglutination test and proved to be reactive to K99 antigens prepared either from reference strains or field-isolates, but showed not to be reactive to 1(99-negative E. ca. Based on the indirect-ELISA, all McAbs produced so far were indicated to be only recognise 1(99 antigens. Moreover immunolgotting utukttaken in this study demonstrated that the 24 McAbs identify 1(99 antigen located at a molecular weight marker ranging from 16000 to 17,000 &ikons (D).

  1. mfn=000366

Supar; Patten, BarryHirst, R.G.; Djaenuri; Kurniasih, Nina(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Penggunaan ELISA untuk deteksi respon antibodi anti fimbrial pada babi yang diimunisasi dengan vaksin E.coli multivalent yang mengandung K88, K99, F41 dan 987P antigen. Penyakit Hewan. (1993). Vol. 25(46A), Edisi khusus p. 21-28.

 

Abstract

The use of ELISA for detecting anti-fimbrial antibody responses in pigs vaccinated with multivalentEscherichia colt containing K88, K99, F41 and 987P antigens. Penyakit Ilewan 25 (46A): 21-28.Enteric infections caused by enterotoxigenicEscherichia coil (E: colt) in piglets are ubiquitous in the pig industry in Indonesia. Mixed infections with different E. coil containing either K88, K99, F41 or 987P fimbrial antigen are commonly found both in a group of piglets or from the one piglet. This contributes to the complex nature of enteric colibacillosis in piglets and makes treatment and control difficult. A multivalent whole cell E. coil vaccine was developed for the control of colibacillosis. Such a vaccine should contain important fimbrial antigens associated with enteropathogenic E. coil as found in the field. Two doses of 2.5 ml vaccine were injected into pregnant sows 6 weeks and again 2 weeks before expected date of farrowing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detecting anti-fimbrial antibody responses in serum and colostrum. Small pilot studies of vaccine field trials to control piglet neonatal colibacillosis were undertaken in some piggeries in Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Medan North Sumatera. The relationship between colostral IgA and IgG antibody responses detected by ELISA and piglet diarrhoea and mortality was determined. Under field conditions, the use of two doses of E. coil vaccine in pregnant sows dramatically reduced diarrhoea and mortality of their suckling piglets.

Key Words: E. coil, vaccine, sows, serum, colostrum, ELISA           1993

  1. mfn=000939

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Vaksin ETEC mencegah diare anak babi. Warta Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pertanian. (1992). V .14(5) p.12.

  1. mfn=000978

Supar; Moekti, Gozali R.; Hastiono, Sukardi(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor(Indonesia)) Potential use of biotechnology in recombinant DNA- derived fimbrial antigen vaccinesof enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli : An overview. Proceedings of a Workshop on Agricultural Biotechnology. Bogor, Indonesia. May 21-24, 1991. p.287- Bogor , Central Research Institute for Food Crops. 1992

 

Abstract

Piglet neonatal diarrhoea associated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) possesing either K88, K99, F41 or 987p fimbrial antigen has been known to cause a major economic loss in pig industry in Indonesia. Similarly, substantial losses due to neonatal diarrhoea associated with ETEC bearing K99 and F41 have so far been experienced in dairy industry. A vaccination program utilizing ETEC vaccines containing both fimbrial and somatic antigens would therefore be appropriate for Indonesian conditions. Whole cell bacterin vaccines containing all fimbrial and somatic antigens has been developed through conventional biotechnology at our Institute. Field vaccine trials have been found to be effective in reducing piglet mortality from 26 percents to 4 percents within the first two week of life. Despite this, the future use of conventional vaccines may be hampered by a number of contraints, such as high cost production, purity of the immunogens and safety level. These would be overcome through the development of genetically engineered recombinant fimbrial vaccine. The expertise and technology are available at out Institute, the development of DNA-derived recombinant fimbrial vaccine may therefore be carried out.           1991

  1. mfn=000269

Supar(Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Bogor (Indonesia))Hirst, Ribert G.(Graduate School of Tropical Veterinary Science, James Cook University Townsville, Australia). Development of a whole cell vaccine from Escherichia coli bearing K88, F14 and 987P fimbrial antigens: studies on the immunogenicity of the fimbrial antigens. Penyakit Hewan. (1991). Vol. 23(41) p.1-10

  1. mfn=000283

Supar (Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Bogor (Indonesia))Hirst, Ribert G. (Graduate School of Tropical Veterinary Science James Cook University, Townsville (Australia)). Development of a whole cell vaccine from Escherichia coli bearing K88, K99, F41, and 987P fimbrial antigens: the relationship between colostral IgA and IgG antifimbrial antibodies and protection. Penyakit Hewan. (1991). Vol. 23(42) p.1-11.

 

Abstract

Supar and R.G. Hirst, 1991 . Development of a whole cell vaccine from Escherichia colt bearing K88, K99, F41, and 987P fimbrial antigens : The relationship between colostral IgA and IgG antifimbrial antibodies and protection. Penyakit Hewan 23 (42) : 1-11 . A study of colostral antifimbrial IgA and IgG antibody was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the level of antibody and protection. A group of 31 pregnant sows was vaccinated with a commercial E. colt vaccine A, a group of 41 sows was vaccinated with E. colt vaccine B based on local field isolates 6 weeks and again 2 weeks before expected date of farrowing. The other group of 41 sows was left unvaccinated as control. Piglets born from both vaccinated andunvaccinated sows were allowed to suckle their ownmothers under field conditions. Colostrum samples were collected from sows within 2 days post farrowing to determine the antifimbrial antibody levels. Rectal swab samples were collected from all of piglets with diarrhoea to determine the presence of enteropathogenic E. colt . Unvaccinated sows exposed to enterotoxigenic E. colt infections from piggery's environment had relatively high background antifimbrial IgA and IgG antibody titres in the colostrum of sows at post farrowing. The association between antifimbrial antibody levels in the colostrum and piglet diarrhoea and mortality rate had some levels of protection provided by naturally acquired IgA and IgG antibodies .The relatively high antifimbrial IgA and IgG antibody levels in the colostrum of unvaccinated sows was apparently less protective for the corresponding suckling offsprings than equivalent levels of antifimbrial IgA and IgG antibodies in the colostrum of vaccinated sows . The level of E. colt K88, K99, F41 and 987P found in association with piglets neonatal diarrhoea in the unvaccinated control group was much higher than that from the vaccinated groups . The investigation of the relationship between antifimbrial antibody level and the reisolation of E. colt fimbrial type indicated that cross protection by each of antifimbrial antibody was apparent . This was clearly shown by the number ofE. colt 987P isolated from piglets born sows which had high titres of heterologous colostral K88, K99, F41 IgA or IgG antibodies. This study had demonstrated that a killed whole cell bacterin vaccine of either commercial or locally produced vaccine containing 4types of fimbrial antigens is highly efficaciousto protect piglet neonatal colibaciillosis as an alternative to andshould replace antibiotic therapy.

Key words: piglets, colibacillosis, vaccine, colostrum, protection .

  1. mfn=001238

Supar; Moekti, Gozali; Hastiono, Sukardi(Balai Penelitian Veteriner). Potential use of biotechnology in recombinant DNA-derived fimbrial antigen vaccines of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: An overview. Proceedings of a workshop on Agricultural Biotechnology. Bogor, Indonesia. May 21-24, 1991. p.287-296. 1991

  1. mfn=001422

Supar(Balai Besar Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia)R.G. Hirst; B.E.Patten. The importance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli containing the 987P antigen in causing neonatal colibacillosis in piglets in Indonesia.Veterinary Microbiology. (1991). Vol. 26 (4)p. 393-400.

 

Abstract

Supar, Hirst, R.G. and Patten, B.E., 1991. The importance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli containing the 987P antigen in causing neonatal colibacillosis in piglets in Indonesia. Vet. Microbiol., 26: 393-400. A survey was undertaken in piggeries in the Bogor and Jakarta Capital Territory areas to identify the antigens associated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). Rectal swab samples were collected from 65 normal piglets and from 858 with diarrhoea. Fimbrial and O-antigens were determined by agglutination tests. The 987P antigen was only associated with non-haemolygic E. coli in colonies grown for 3-10 days in tryptic soy broth. Organisms which possessed 987P antigen were isolated from 56.4% of piglets with diarrhoea and from 10.8% of normal piglets. Most cases of diarrhoea that were associated with E. coil 987P occurred within the first 3 weeks of life. Multiple infections occurred in 13.4% of cases and were associated with E. coli K88 in eight cases (1,7%), K99 in 26 cases (5.4%) and F41 in 31 cases (6.4%). Of 959 isolates orE. coli 987P, 80.7% were O-group 20, 13% were Ogroup 9 and 0.5% were O-group 141 with 5.7% being non-typable. Heat stable toxin was produced by all five E. coli 987P isolates tested.

  1. mfn=000242

Supar; Patten, Barry(Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Bogor (Indonesia))Hirst, Ribert G. (Graduate School of Tropical Veterinary Science, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, Australia). Antimicrobial drug resistance in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88, K99, F41 and 987P isolated from piglets in Indonesia. Penyakit Hewan. (1990). Vol. 22(39) p. 13-19.

 

Abstract

Piglet neonatal diarrhoea associated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) containing K88, K99, F41 or 987P fimbrial antigen is known to occur in commercial piggeries in Indonesia. Antimicrobial drugs are commonly used for treatment with little apparent success. Arepresentative sample of ETEC strains containing either K88, K99, F41 or 987P fimbrial antigen collected in 1985 and 1988 were tested for their susceptibility to the antibiotics commonly used in the piggeries studied. The antibiotics included ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, oxytetracycline, kanamycin, trimethoprim/sulphonamides, chloramphenicol together with some antibiotics not yet in use in the piggeries which included erythromycin, nitrofuratoin, gentamicin and polymyxin B sulphate. Of the 73 E. coli K88 serotypes isolated in 1985, 16.4% were resistant to ampicillin, 69.9% to streptomycin and/or sulphonamides, 28.8% to neomycin, 94.5% to oxytetracycline, 31.5% to kanamycin and 56.2% to chloramphenicol. None of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulphonamides, nitrofurantoin or polymyxin B sulphate . Ofthe serotypes tested 92.5% were resistant to at least 2 antibiotics and some were resistant to up to 7 antibiotics. Of the 500 ETEC containing either K88, K99, F41 or 987P fimbrial antigen isolated in 1988, 27.8% were resistant to ampicillin, 62% to streptomycin, 54.4% to neomycin, 95.8% to oxytetracycline, 23.2% to erythromycin, 45.2% to kanamycin, 21 .8% to trimethoprim/ sulphonamides, 16.2% to chloramphenicol, 66.6% to sulphonamides and 1 isolate was resistant to gentamicin and nitrofurantoin . None were resistant to polymyxin B sulphate. Of the serotypes tested 95.8% were resistant to at least 2 antibiotics and some were resistant to up to 9 antibiotics. The presence of multiple resistance to the commonly used antibiotics is the likely cause of the failure of antibiotics to control neonatal scours associated with ETEC and the associated high mortality of neonatal pigs seen in the piggeries studied.                1990

  1. mfn=000255

Supar(Research Institute for Veterinary Science Bogor (Indonesia))Hirst, Ribert G.(Graduate School of Tropical Veterinary Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. Development of a whole cell vaccines from Escherichia coli bearing K88, K99, F14 and 987P fimbrial antigens: vaccine field trials to control piglet neonatal colibacillosis. Penyakit Hewan. (1990). Vol. 22(40) p.69-75.

 

Abstract

Supar and R.G . Hirst, 1990 . Development of a whole cell vaccines from Fscherichia colt bearing K88, K99, F41 and 987P funbrial antigens : vaccine field trials to control piglet neonatal colibacillosis . Penyakit Hewan 22 (40) : 69-75.A polyvalent Escherichia colt vaccine containing K88, K99, F41 and 987P fimbrial antigen was produced from E. colt field isolates of 0-groups 9, 20, 64, 101, 108, 138 and 157. The cells were formalin killed and adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide to a final concentration of 25% and blended to provide a polyvalent vaccine and contain equal proportion of each fimbrial antigen component. Field trials of polyvalent vaccine to control piglet neonatal colibacillosis were conducted in one piggery in Jakarta and one piggery in Bogor for a 9 month period (April 1989 -January 1990). Pregnant sows were injected with 2.5 ml of vaccine 6 weeks and again 2 weeks before expected date of farrowing. This vaccine was compared with a similar commercial vaccine. Under field conditions, it was shown that the polyvalent vaccine based on local field isolates and the commercial vaccine gave a significant reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea and mortality. The polyvalent vaccine based on local field isolates gave better protection than that of the commercial vaccine, but statistically not significant different. Vaccination of sows with an appropriate E. colt vaccine in association with improve management practices is an effective method to control neonatal colibacillosis of piglets. Key words: piglets, colibacillosis, vaccine, control.

  1. mfn=001894

Supar Hirst, R.G (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Immunization Against Piglet Colibacillosis By Sow Vaccinatin With Escherichia Coli Containing K88, K99, F41 And 987P Antigens. Proceeding of The 7th Congress of Federation of Asian Veterinary Associations. Thailand. 4-7 November 1990. p.501-511. Thailand. The Royal Thai Veterinay Medical Association. (1990).

Abstract

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are known to be one of the major causes of neonatal diarrhoea and mortality of piglets within the first 2 weeks of life. Piglets neonatal diarrhoea or neonatal colibacillosis is likely to be widely distributed in intensive piggeries in Indonesia and thus responsible for substantial economic losses. Antibiotic drugs were found to be ineffective for the treatment and control of neonatal diarrhoea in pigs in the areas studies as the animals died quickly with severe dehydration. The ETEC strains isolated from cases of diarrhoea were commonly resistant to between 2 and 9 antibiotics. Multivalent ETEC vaccine containing K88, K99, F41, and 987P fimbrial antigens was produced based on field serotypes. These associated with 0-serogroups 9, 20, 64, 108, 138, 149, and 157.The cell were inactivated with formalin to a final concentration of 0.02% and alumunium hydroxide was added to a final concentration of 25% and blended to contain optimal proportion of each antigen. This was compared with similar commercial ETEC vaccine. Field trials were conducted in one piggery in Bogor and one in Jakarta Capital Territory from March to December 1989.Pregnant sows were injected with 2 - 3 ml of vaccine 6 weeks and again 2 weeks before farrowing. Groups of sows were left unvaccinated as control. The piglets born were observed for the presence of diarrhoea and mortality. Rectal swabs were taken to determine the presence of ETEC.Under field conditions, administration of 2 doses of vaccine did not cause any cases of abortion. Vaccination of pregnant sows with ETEC vaccine prepared based on field serotype reduced the prevalence of diarrhoea from 227. to 47 and the neonatal mortality rate from 24% to 47 in their offspring during the first 2 weeks of life. The commercial vaccine reduced the prevalence of neonatal diarrhoea from 227 to 97. and the neonatal mortality from 247 to 87.. On both farms and both trials E.coli 987P was predominant isolates. Serological assays of colostral IgG and IgA levels to 987P are lower than that for other antigens. It is shown that E.coli 987P is providing the heaviest challenge on both farms. This challenge will reduce with continued vaccination.    1990

  1. mfn=000609

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Faktor-faktor virulensi enterotoksin dan perlekatan Escherichia coli terhadap kesehatan ternak dan manusia. Wartazoa. 1997. Vol.6(1) p.7-17.

 

Abstrak

Galur bakteri Escherichia coli enterotoksigenik (ETEC) merupakan salah satu kelompok bakteri yang paling banyak menimbulkan diare neonatal pada ternak, seperti anak sapi, babi clan kambing atau pada anak-anak di bawah umur lima tahun (MOON, 1974; TZIPORI, 1985; SUPAR et al,(1989) . Bakteri ETEC penyebab diare pada anak babi pertama kali dideskripsikan oleh SMITH clan HALLS (1967), sedangkan pada manusia dipelajari oleh GORBAH et al. (1971) clan SACK et al . (1971) . Dewasa ini ETEC masih merupakan penyebab diare pada anak-anak BALITA di negara berkembang (AGUERo et al ., 1985 ; CRAVIATO etal., 1988). Di samping itu, masih disinyalir sebagai penyebab diare bagi para pelancong atau turis asal negara maju ke negara berkembang (MERSON et al ., 1976). ETEC jarang diisolasi dari kasus diare di negara maju, tetapi sering menyebabkan wabah diare pada anak-anak di rumah sakit clan para perawat (ESCRIBANO et al ., 1987; BLANCO et al ., (1989) .

  1. mfn=000210

Supar; Patten, Barry (Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Bogor (Indonesia))Hirst, Ribert G.(Graduate School of Tropical Veterinary Science, James Cook University Townsville, Australia). [The detection of enterotoxic Escherichia coli with F41 fimbrial antigen from pigs in Indonesia.]. Penyakit Hewan. (1989). Vol. 21(37) p. 13-17.

 

Abstract

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the cause of diarrhoea in newborn piglets. A survey was undertaken in piggeries in the Bogor and Jakarta areas to detect the presence of ETEC infection. Rectal swab samples were collected from both normal piglets and those with diarrhoea. Each sample was cultured on McConkey agar and 5% sheep blood agar . All haemolytic colonies and 4 to 8 representative colonies from each McConkey plate were subcultured onto Minca agar with I% Iso-Vitalex (VITOX). Specific F41, K99F41, K99, K88 antisera were produced in rabbits and were prepared as coagglutination reagents for fimbrial antigen detection. O-serotypes were identified by coagglutination . E. coli F41 serotypes were detected from 16% (138/858) of piglets with diarrhoea, but not from normal animals (0/65) . TheE. coli F41serotypes were associated with 0-group 101 (375/378) and 0-group 9 (3/378). E. coli K99F41 serotype was detected from 4 samples and was associated with 0-group 101 . E. coli K88K99 serotype was isolated from a swati from six-day-old piglet with diarrhoea and was associated with 0-group 108. Most of these pathogens were associated with piglets aged between one and ten days which had diarrhoea.                                                                                                                      1989

  1. mfn=001609

Supar; Patten, B. (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia) Hirst, R.G.(Graduate School of Tropical Veterinary Science, James Cook University Australia). K-Adhesins and O-serogroup of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in calves and piglets with diarrhoea. Proceedings of the Sixth Congress Federation of Asian Veterinary Associations (FAVA). Denpasar-Bali Indonesia. October 16-19, 1988. p.479-483. Denpasar. Perhimpunan Dokter Hewan Indonesia.

 

  1. mfn=000166

Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Diagnosis kolibasillosis pada anak sapi : penggunaan anak mencit untuk identifikasi enterotoksin tanah panas. Penyakit Hewan. (1987). V .19(34) p.54-57

 

Abstract

Escherichia coli isolates from dairy calves with diarrhoea in Sukabumi and Bandung were tested for their enterotoxigenicity . The suckling mouse bioassay was developed for detecting E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin . Cell-free supernatants of tested organisms were prepared from casamino acid yeast-extract trace salts broth cultures of 20-40 hours incubation at 37°C. These supernatants were obtained by centrifugation at 9,000 rpm for 30 min. at 4°C and heated at 60°C for 20 min. Twenty-two E. cola isolates possessing K99 adhesins produced heat-stable enterotoxin, and K99- serotypes did not . The suckling mouse bioassay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for

routine diagnosis in detecting heat-stable enterotoxin of E. coli from calves

  1. mfn=000167

Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Studi perbandingan uji ELISA dan biakan jaringan sel adrenal Y1 pada enterotoksin yang tidak tahan panas kuman Escherichia coli K88 berasal dari babi penderitaan diare. Penyakit Hewan. (1987). V .19(34) p.58-64.

 

Abstract

Modified GMl-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with visual reading and Y1 adrenal cell assay in miniculture have been developed for identification of heat-labile enterotoksin (LT) produced by Escherichia coli isolates from piglets. The GM1-horseradish peroxidase-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1-HRP-ELISA) is based on the immunological similarity between Vibrio cholera toxin and heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin. E. coli K88 and K88- K99- and known E. coli producing LT tested with the GM1-HRP-ELISA gave excelent correlation with the conventional method of the Y1 adrenal cytotoxicity assay. Ninety five E. colt K88 serotypes from piglets with diarrhoea produced LT, while 23 isolates of E. coli K88- K99- from normal piglets and 22 isolates of E. colt K99 from calves producing heat-stable toxin did not. The GMl-HRP-ELISA is as sensitive as the Yl adrenal cell assay and it needs less equipment. The GM1-HRP-ELISA is easy to be done and adaptable in small veterinery laboratory in this country, because stable reagents including horseradish pzroxidase immunoglobin conjugates are commercially available.

  1. mfn=000125

Supar; Poernomo, Sri (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)).Uji aglutinasi cepat terhadap antigen mycoplasma gallisepticum (S6) pada telur ayam asal peternakan pembibitan. Penyakit Hewan. (1986). Vol.18(31) p.19-23

  1. mfn=000129

Poernomo, Sri; Supar; Napitupulu, Robinson; Kurniasih, Nina; Hardjoutomo, Suprodjo (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Mycoplasmosis pada unggas di Indonesia uji lapangan pemakaian antigen berwarna Mycoplasma gallisepticum pada ayam ras petelur. Penyakit Hewan. (1986). Vol.18(31) p.40-44.

 

  1. mfn=000149          

Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Penggunaan metode enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) untuk deteksi antigen PILI K99 mfn=000149 Supar (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Penggunaan metode enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) untuk deteksi antigen PILI K99 dan K88 pada Escherichia coli dari anak sapi dan anak babi diare. PENYAKIT HEWAN. (1986).V .18(32) p.159-168.

 

Abstract

Enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli responsible for diarrhoea in new born calves and piglets and a search was undertaken in dairy herds and piggeries in Sukabumi and Bandung, West Java and Kapuk, Jakarta Capital territory. Rectal swabs were collected from 415 calves and 181 piglets and clinical signs were recorded.The samples were plated on McConkey and blood agar media. All haemolytic colonies and 4 -6 colonies from each McConkey plate were subcultured on Dorset's egg medium and stored. Specific K88ab, K88ac and K99 antisera were prepared in rabbits for serotyping. The rapid serum agglutination test and ELISA method using whole cells and pili suspensions were compared. Diarrhoea cases in calves were found in average 21.20% (88/415) and in piglets21.76% (99/455). Non-haemolytic E. coli possessing K99 adhesins were isolated from calves with diarrhea 9.09% (8/88). Haemolytic colonies of E. coli possessing K88 adhesins were isolated from piglets with diarrhea 13.13% (13/99). The ELISA method is extremely specific and reliable used for detections K99 or K88 pili of E. coli from clinical isolates             1986

  1. mfn=001959

Supar Poerwadikarta,M.Bhakti Hastiono,Sukardi Hardjoutomo,Suprodjo (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Uji Serologik Tuberkulosis Unggas Secara Aglutinasi Serum Cepat Dengan Antigen Mycobacterium Avium (Studi Pendahuluan). Penyakit Hewan Bogor. 17-19 1986. vol XVIII p.14-18. Bogor. Balai Penelitian Veteriner. (1986).

 

Abstract

A preliminary study for preparing Mycobacterium avium antigen had been done using three strains (D 4ER, BCC 661 and local isolate) grown in liquid synthetic medium. Two of these strains, D 4ER and local isolate produced antigens which could not be used as antigens because of autoagglutination. Only the one remaining showed a high degree of specifycity when tested with sera from normal chickens and experimentally infected chickens with M avium. One hundred and seventy sera collected from layers and village chickens from 20 farms in various places in West Java were tested with this antigen, 14 samples gave positive agglutination against M. avium BCC 661 antigen.                               1986

  1. mfn=002135

Supar; Poernomo Sri[Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor]. Uji Aglutinasi Cepet Terhadap Antigen Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (S6) Pada Telur Ayam Peternakan Pembibitan. Penyakit Hewan. Edisi Khusus. 1986. Vol.18 (43A):p.19-23.

 

Abstract

The rapid egg-yolk agglutination test was used to detect the presence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in 38 flocks of parent stock chickens from 14 breeding farms (3 from Jakarta; 2 from Bandung, West Java; 3 from Surabaya East Java; 1 from Denpasar, Bali and 5 from Medan, North Sumatera). With 1272 sample of egg from 1272 eggs tested, 149 yolk gone postitive agglutination against M. gallisepticum (S6) antigen. The positive reactors originally case from 30 flocks, averaged from 1.18% to 50% of samples. The egg-yolk test seemed to be a valuable, practical and simple method for routine investigation for M. gallisepticum infection in breeder flocks. The influence of mycoplasma infection on egg fertility and hatchability need to be properly investigated and evaluated further.

  1. mfn=002140

Poernomo Sri; Supar; Napitupulu Robinson; Kurniasih Nina; Hardjoutomo Suprodjo[Balai Besar Veteriner]. Mycoplasmosis Pada Unggas Indonesia Di Indonesia Uji Lapangan Pemakain Antigen Berwarna Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Pada Ayam Ras Petelur. Penyakit Hewan. Edisi Khusus. 1986. Vol.18(43A):p.40-44.

 

Abstract

The epidemiology of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) infections and the efficacy of a Mg stained antigen prepared at the Balai Penelitian Veteriner (BALITVET) Bogor were investigated using a rapid serum agglutination test by screening birds on layer chicken farms, viz : 6 in Palembang, 7 in East-Java, 15 in Bali and 20 in Lampung, collected respectively in December 1981, March 1982, January 1983 and January 1985. The results showed positive reaction ranges of 20-46% in Palembang, 0-38% in East Java, 0-23% in Bali and 17-100% in Lampung. Several factors, such as the method of poultry keeping, sanitation, ventilation and insulation of the chicken pens were considered important in influencing the level of Mg. infection.

  1. mfn=000084

Supar; Poerwadikarta, M. Bhakti; Soeroso, Moch (Balai Penelitian Penyakit Hewan, Bogor (Indonesia)). Studi pembuatan PPD tuberkulin Mycobacterium avium.Penyakit Hewan. (1984). Vol. 16 (28) p. 228-232

 

Abstract

Apurified protein derivative (PPD), avian tuberculin, was produced under laboratory conditions at the Research Institute for AnimalDisease, Bogor, using g highly cultivated D4ER strain of Mycobacteriumavium. To asses this biological product as a diagnostic agent,at was tested in experimental chickens . Twenty four five month old chickens which reacted negatively to PPD tuberculin were divided intofour groups . The first, second and third groups were inoculated intramuscularly with viable strains ofMAvium (D4ER, Yogya isolate and661 Bakitwan Culture Collection). The fourth group of chickens were not inoculated and were used as a control. Four and six weeks afterinoculation, the chickens which survived and the control group were tested with PPG tuberculin . Tuberculin was injected intradermicallyat the wattle, using a tuberculin syringe (1-ml capacity). The observations for determining reactors were made 48 hours following theinjection of tuberculin . The inoculated chickens were positive reactors and the control group were negative reactors . The results of thisexperiment suggest that PPD avian tuberculin can be used as a diagnostic agent to identifyM. aviumin fection in poultry

  1. mfn=000054

Poernomo, Sri; Supar; Hardjoutomo, Suprodjo; Iskandar, Tolibin (Balai Penelitian Penyakit Hewan, Bogor (Indonesia)). Sanitasi mesin penetasan dan ruangannya. I. Pemeriksaan jenis kuman dari debu asal mesin penetasan. Penyakit Hewan. (1983). Vol.15(25) p.87-90.

 

Abstract

Incubator and hatching room sanitation are important for subsequent health of the chickens which will increase the financial returns both to the hatchery owner and purchaser. The aim of this research is to study problems of the sanitation of breeding farm and hatchery and how these may be solved . To get information, the authors visited fourteen breeding farms in Jakarta, West-Java and East-Java. Dust from the egg storage/ fumigatory room, setter, hatcher and D.O .C . packaging room were collected for laboratory examination. The method used for examination was Qualitative examination of bacteria present in the dust . The bacteria commonly encountered were : Staphylococcus sp ., Streptococcus sp ., Pseudomonas sp ., Escherichia coli, Bacillus sp ., Enterobacter sp ., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp ., Alcaligenes sp ., Chromobacter sp ., Salmonella sp ., Micrococcus sp ., Citrobacter sp ., Serratia sp ., Shigella sp ., Arizona sp ., Diplococcus sp ., Providensia sp ., Listeria sp., Edwardsiella sp . and Gafkya sp

  1. mfn=000064

Achdijati, Jajuk; Hardjoutomo, Suprodjo; Supar; Poeloengan, Masniari (Balai Penelitian Penyakit Hewan, Bogor (Indonesia)). Isolasi dan identifikasi berbagai bakteri dari kasus pink eye pada ruminansia besar asal Jawa Tengah.Penyakit Hewan. (1983). Vol.15(26) p.129-131.

 

Abstract

 

Specimens were collected from Central Java as part or the second stage of a survey of pink eye in large ruminants in Indonesia . Twospecimens were taken from Ongole cattle, two fromBrahman cattle and one from buffalo (kerbau Murrah) . Amies and Stuart transportmedia were used for the transportation of specimens . A number of species of bacteria were isolated from cases of pink eyein cattle andbuffalo.Aeromonas sp ., Moraxella kingii, Neisseria sp ., Chromobacterium spCitrobacter freundii, Shigella sonnei were isolated fromcattle . Moraxella bovis, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella urethralis and Actinobacillus sp. were isolated from buffalo

  1. mfn=000931

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Sifat imunologik kolustrum pada babi. Warta Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pertanian. (1983). V .5(2) p.7. 1983

  1. mfn=000033

Supar; Hardjoutomo, Suprodjo (Balai Penelitian Penyakit Hewan, Bogor (Indonesia)). Garam dapur sebagai senyawa kimia bersifat bakterisidal terhadap Aeromonas liquefaciens. PENYAKIT HEWAN. (1982). Vol.14(23) p.9-13.

 

Abstract

An experiment to ascertain the bactericidal action of sodium chloride on Aeromonas  liquefaciens was conducted in 1981 under laboratory conditions . A fresh isolate of this bacterium was taken from diseased carp for this experiment in 1980 . Various concentrations of sodium chloride were prepared in distilled water and sterilized . A suspension of A. liquefaciens was then added to those solutions to make the final concentration approximately 70 x 106 cells per millilitre, measured using Welcome Opacity Tubes. Observations of viability were made at specific times on the days that followed . In a concentration of sodium chloride of 0.85% A. liquefaciens could survive more than 56 days . In higher concentrations of sodium chloride the bacterium did not survive as long . It was found that at a concentration of 501o and higher A. liquefaciens could not survive any longer than 24 -48 hours. It is obvious from this experiment that sodium chloride has a bactericidal action against A. liquefaciens.

  1. mfn=000930

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor (Indonesia)). Penyakit mata pada ternak. Warta Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pertanian. (1982). V .4(5) p.3.

  1. mfn=001927

Achdijati,Jayuk Supar Hardjoutomo,Suprojo Poeloengan,Masniari (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Isolasi Moraxella Bovis Pada Sapi Bali Dan Peranakan Ongole Di Kalimantan Selatan. Proceedings Seminar Penelitian Peternakan Bogor. 8-11 pebruari 1982. p.428-434. Bogor. Pusat Penelitian Dan Pengembanganan Peternakan

 

 Abstrak

Keratokonjungtivitis atau Pink eye pada sapi yang dapat bersifat akut atau khronik disebabkanoleh infeksi Moraxella bovis pada kornea. Penyakit ini sering mengakibatkan gangguan pertambahanberat badan, pertumbuhan, malahan daya tahan sapi, karena kebutaan akibat koyaknya kornea terse-rang. Dan 69 sapi yang menunjukkan keratokonjungtivitis diambil spesimennya dengan memakai lidiberujung kapas steril dan dari padanya dapat diisolasi lima isolat. Kelima isolat tersebut temyataadalah Moraxella bovis.

  1. mfn=001935

Hardjoutomo,Suprodjo Supar Poeloengan,Masniari Achdijati,Jajuk (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Air Limbah Rumah Potong Hewan Kodya Dt II Bogor Dalam Hubungannya Dengan Pencemaran Lingkungan Proceedings Seminar Penelitian Peternakan Bogor. 8-11 pebruari 1982. p.552-556. Bogor. Pusat Penelitian Dan Pengembanganan Peternakan (1982).

 Abstrak

Salah satu manfaat dari adanya Rumah Pemotongan Hewan ialah terhindarnya konsumen darikemungkinan adanya penularan penyakit yang berasal dari ternak yang dipotong. Penelitian ini ber-tujuan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana Rumah Pemotongan Hewan menimbulkan pencemaran ter-hadap lingkungannya terutama bagi kesehatan manusia yang tinggal di sekitar Rumah PemotonganHewan. Dari air limbah Rumah Pemotongan Hewan Kodya DT. II Bogor dapat diisolasi genera danfamili bakteri sebagai berikut: Bacteriodes, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Chromobacterium,Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, dan Aeromonas. Penelitian lebih lanjut masih diker-jakan untuk identifikasi ke arah species serta peranan dari isolat-isolat di Laboratorium BakteriologiBalai Penelitian Penyakit Hewan.        1982

  1. mfn=001936

Poernomo,Sri Supar Hardjoutomo,Suprodjo (Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Sanitasi Mesin Penetasan Dan Ruangannya Proceedings Seminar Penelitian Peternakan Bogor. 8-11 pebruari 1982. p.557-562. Bogor. Pusat Penelitian Dan Pengembanganan Peternakan (1982).

  1. mfn=001057

Ginting, Ngepkep; Poernomo, Sri; Supar; Tarmudji(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Penggunaan desinfektansia IOSAN CCT untuk mencegah mastitis akibat Staphylococcus aureus dan Streptococcus sp. pada sapi perah. BULLETIN L.P.P.H. (1981). V .13(21) p.43-53.

 

Abstract

Test on disinfectants are made in order to determine their exact germ killing capacity to determine whether their activity is reproducible. This preliminary investigations of the disinfectant in particular test situations are appropriate. The first tests carried out in the preliminary investigation of the disinfectant IOSAN CCT were of its bactericidal effects against the Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. Thirty two teat dips were tested for effectiveness in reducing population of experimentally applied Staphylococcus aureus and Strepcoccus sp. on teat skin. The results varied widely among tested and untreated. Effectiveness for reducing numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. This reduction was significant (P < 0,01) when compered with control, but no significant (P > 0,05) differences were found among concentration of 20% IOSAN CCT, 40% IOSAN CCT and 60% IOSAN CCT both against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. The experiment showed that disinfectant IOSAN CCT can be used for disinfecting against the Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. in Indonesia. For disinfection against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. IOSAN CCT should be used at a concentration of 20%.        1981

  1. mfn=001068

Supar; Achdijati, Jajuk; Hardjoutomo, Suprodjo; Poeloengan, Masniari(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Kasus keratoconjunctivitis pada ternak sapi (studi pendahuluan). BULLETIN L.P.P.H. (1981). V .13(22) p.73-84.

 

Abstract

An infectious keratoconjunctivitis or "Pink Eye" is known to be found inBali And Ongole cattle breeds in Kalimantan Selatan. All ages and breeds aresusceptible to infection. Clinical signs observed in 69 affected animals inJanuary, 1981, were as follows: acute conjunctivitis, blepharitis, lachrymation,corneal swelling, opacity and temporary blindness. Cattle became photophobicand decrease in body weight was severe in some cases. "Pink Eye" cases whichoccurred in Kalimantan Selatan could be differentiated into an acute opthal-mitic type and a chronic ulcerative keratitis with corneal opacity.Some specimens were taken by sterile cotten swabs placed between thecornea and eyelid. After the swab was saturated with discharge, it was placed insterile transport medium. Bacteriological examination was done at Balai Penelitian Penyakit HewanBogor. Isolates of bacteria from cases of Pink Eye included: Streptococcus sp.,Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli, Acenitobacter sp.,Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus sp., Neisseria sp. and Moraxella sp. Further research in this field is needed to define the etiologic role of Mora-xella sp. and other pathogens in infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis inKalimantan Selatan.

  1. mfn=002134

Supar; Poerwadikarta Bhakti. M; Hastino Sukardi; Hardjoutomo Suprodjo[Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor.]. Uji Serologik Tuberkulosis Unggas Secara Aglutinasi Serum Cepat Dengan Antigen Mycobacterium Avium (Studi Pendahuluan. Penyakit Hewan. Edisi Khusus. 1981.

 

Abstract

 A preliminary study for preparing Mycobacterium avium antigen had been done using three strains (D 4ER, BCC 661 and local isolate) grown in liquid synthetic medium. Two of these strains, D 4ER and local isolate produced antigens which could not be used as antigens because of autoagglutination. Only the one remaining showed a high degree of specifycity when tested with sera from normal chickens and experimentally infected chickens with M avium. One hundred and seventy sera collected from layers and village chickens from 20 farms in various places in West Java were tested with this antigen, 14 samples gave positive agglutination against M. avium BCC 661 antigen.               1981

  1. mfn=001026

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Casein hidrolisat. BULLETIN L.P.P.H. (1980). V .12(19) p.1-6.

 

Abstract

Protein yang terdapat dalam air susu sapi antara lain terdiri dari casein, laktalbumin dan laktoglobulin. Kandungan casein berkisar sekitar 80% dari jumlah protein seluruhnya (1,5). Casein sendiri tidak larut dalam air. Penambahan asam ke dalam susu segar akan menurunkan pH-nya sampai titik isoelektrik casein (4,6 — 4,7), di mana casein paling dapat diendapkan. Dalam endapan casein yang pertama termasuk sedikit lemak dan zat-zat lain yang terdapat dalam air susu terbawa oleh casein pada waktu mengendap. Endapan casein ini dapat dilarutkan dalam alkali dan diendapkan kembali. Sifat-sifat inilah yang dapat dipakai untuk mendapatkan casein murni (1). Casein hidrolisat dapat diperoleh dari casein murni yang dihidrolisasikan dengan enzim proteolitik pankreas atau dengan asam khlorida. Di dalam laboratorium mikrobiologi/ bakteriologi, casein hidrolisat dipergunakan untuk pembuatan kultur media (3,4). Casein berupa fosfoprotein yang apabila dihidrolisa sampai sempurna akan menghasilkan asam fospat dan asam-asam amino. Hasil hidrolisa casein secara enzimatik merupakan zat yang kaya akan asam-asam amino esensil dan vitamin. Berbeda dengan hidrolisa enzimatik, hidrolisa dengan asam khlorida menyebabkan vitaminvitamin dan "growth factor" lainnya mengalami kerusakan (1, 4).Di sini penulis akan mengetengahkan cara-cara untuk mendapatkan casein murni,hidrolisasi dan penggunaan casein hidrolisat dalam media.

  1. mfn=001022

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Pembuatan pepton. I. Pepton hewan. BULLETIN L.P.P.H. (1979). V .11(18) p.27-32.

 Abstrak

Dalam rangka menunjang pengadaan bahan pembuatan media khususnya pepton, penelitian pembuatan pepton telah dimulai sejak beberapa tahun yang lampau (7). Pada dasarnya penelitian ini untuk memperoleh pepton yang dapat dipakai sebagai pengganti pepton impor. Pepton merupakan derivat protein yang tidak lagi bersifat koloidal, mudah larut dalam air dan tidak menggumpal karena pangs (3). Derivat protein ini sebagai hasil antara dari protein alam (hewani dan nabati) yang dihidrolisakan dengan beberapa enzim proteolitik. Derivat protein dapat digolongkan menjadi dua kelompok (1): ialah derivat protein primer seperti (metaprotein, coagulated protein) dan derivat protein sekunder seperti (proteose, pepton dan peptida (5, 6). Pepton komersil yang dipergunakan dalam pembuatan kultur media masih tersusun dari beberapa komponen seperti proteose, pepton polipeptida dan asam-asam amino. Susunannya tergantung pada type pepton tersebut (4): (a) type pepton yang kadar pepton dan asam-asam aminonya lebih tinggi dari kadar proteosenya, dalam pasaran disebut pepton; (b) type pepton yang kadar proteosenya lebih tinggi dari pepton dan asam-asam aminonya, dalam pasaran disebut proteose pepton. Biasanya mikroorganisme tumbuh lebih baik pada kultur media yang terbuat dari pepton type (a), tetapi ada jasad renik yang tumbuhnya lebih baik dan subur pada kultur media yang dibuat dari proteose pepton, khususnya substrat pembentuk toksin bagi species bakteri tertentu (5). Jaringan pankreas hewan atau manusia diketahui mengandung enzim proteolitik dalam bentuk tidak aktif ialah tripsinogen dan khimotripsinogen (1). Di dalam tubuh hewan atau manusia getah pankreas merupakan zat cair yang jernih dan reaksinya alkalik, dapat menghidrolisa lemak, amilum, juga dapat menghidrolisa protein setelah diaktifkan oleh enzim enterokinase dari selaput duodenum (3). Daya hidrolisa enzim-enzim pankreas dapat diselidiki dari ekstrak alkoholiknya (alkohol 25%). Enzim proteolitik pankreas menghidrolisa protein menjadi asam-asam amino. Proses hidrolisasi ini berlangsung setingkat demi setingkat dan berlangsung paling aktif pada keadaan lingkungan yang agak alkalik (pH 7, 8) (2).               1979

  1. mfn=001023

Supar(Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Bogor Indonesia). Pembuatan pepton. II. Pepton nabati. BULLETIN L.P.P.H. (1979). V .11(18) p.33-38.

 Abstrak

Maksud dari penelitian ini ialah untuk mendapatkan gambaran atau mengetahui apakah kacang-kacangan, khususnya kacang kedelai dapat dipakai sebagai bahan dasar dalam pembuatan pepton, mengingat di Indonesia hasil biji kacang kedelai cukup banyak. Penelitian ini sebagai kelanjutan dari bagian I. Dalam tulisan ini akan diuraikan mengenai pepton nabati, cara pembuatannya dan hasil pengujian terhadap beberapa species bakteri. Metoda yang dipakai dalam pembuatan pepton nabati ini pada dasarnya sama dengan pembuatan pepton hewani. Dalam hal ini dengan sedikit modifikasi dalam mendapatkan ekstrak protein dari kacang kedelai.Kacang kedelai merupakan salah satu dari bermacam-macam kacangkacangan yang mempunyai kandungan protein yang tinggi, lemak dan karbohidratnya lebih rendah. Juga terdapat mineral, vitamin (thiamin) dan enzim (urease). Protein utamanya ialah glycinine yang mengandung asam-asam amino esensil dan asam amino non esensil. Selain glycinine juga terdapat albumin. Sebagai bahan nutrisi nilai glycinine sama dengan casein (1, 2). Pepton nabati (soy bean meal peptone) dapat diperoleh dari biji/tepung kedelai dengan cara menghidrolisasikan dengan enzim proteolitik seperti tripsin, khimotripsin dan papain (5). Papain dapat diperoleh dari ekstrak buah papaya yang sudah masak (1). Tripsin dan khimotripsin terdapat dalam getah pancreas (1 ; 3). Dalam pembuatan pepton nabati ini enzim yang dipakai ialah ekstrak pankreas (pankreatin).  1979